8.A Students use numbers in everyday and mathematical contexts to quantify or describe phenomena, develop concepts of operations with different types of numbers, use the structure and properties of numbers with operations to solve problems, and perform mathematical computations. Students develop number sense related to magnitude, estimation, and the effects of mathematical operations on different types of numbers. It is expected that students use numbers flexibly, using forms of numbers that best match a situation. Students compute efficiently and accurately. Estimation should always be used when computing with numbers or solving problems.
8.A.1 Students express or interpret numbers using scientific notation from real-life contexts.
8.A.1.a Use positive and negative integer exponents for powers of ten.
8.B Students make measurements and collect, display, evaluate, analyze, and compute with data to describe or model phenomena and to make decisions based on data. Students compute statistics to summarize data sets and use concepts of probability to make predictions and describe the uncertainty inherent in data collection and measurement. It is expected that when working with measurements students: understand that most measurements are approximations and that taking repeated measurements reveals this variability; understand that a number without a unit is not a measurement, and that an appropriate unit must always be attached to a number to provide a measurement; understand that the precision and accuracy of a measurement depends on selecting the appropriate tools and units; and use estimation comparing measures to benchmarks appropriate to the type of measure and units.
8.B.1 Students understand and use derived measures (measurements expressed as rates).
8.B.1.a Calculate measures using multiple attributes including speed (distance per time).
8.C Students use measurement and observation to describe objects based on their sizes and shapes; model or construct two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects; solve problems involving geometric properties; compute areas and volumes based on object properties and dimensions; and perform transformations on geometric figures. When making or calculating measures students use estimation to check the reasonableness of results.
8.C.1 Students know and use properties of polygons.
8.C.1.a Apply the triangle inequality.
8.C.1.b Find the sum of the measures of the interior angles of a polygon.
8.C.2.c Know and use properties of angles created by parallel lines and transversals to determine the angle properties of trapezoids and parallelograms, and apply these properties in problem situations.
8.C.3 Students know and use the Pythagorean Theorem.
8.D Students use symbols to represent or model quantities, patterns, and relationships and use symbolic manipulation to evaluate expressions and solve equations. Students solve problems using symbols, tables, graphs, and verbal rules choosing the most effective representation and converting among representations.
8.D.1 Students create, evaluate, and manipulate expressions.
8.D.1.a Create and evaluate expressions using real numbers.
8.D.2.b Recognize that, in general, linear equations have just one solution-but know also that some linear equations can have no solution and those linear equations that are identities have every value of x as a solution.
8.D.4.b Understand that the graph of a linear relationship y = kx + b is a line where the slope is k and b is the y-coordinate of the point where the graph crosses the y-axis (i.e., value of y when x = 0).