Represent complex numbers and their operations on the complex plane.
9-12.N-CN.1 Represent complex numbers on the complex plane in rectangular and polar form (including real and imaginary numbers), and explain why the rectangular and polar forms of a given complex number represent the same number.
9-12.N-VM.5 Recognize vector quantities as having both magnitude and direction. Represent vector quantities by directed line segments, and use appropriate symbols for vectors and their magnitudes (e.g., v, |v|, ||v||, v).
9-12.N-VM.8.c Understand vector subtraction v – w as v + (–w), where –w is the additive inverse of w, with the same magnitude as w and pointing in the opposite direction. Represent vector subtraction graphically by connecting the tips in the appropriate order, and perform vector subtraction component-wise.
9-12.N-VM.9.b Compute the magnitude of a scalar multiple cv using ||cv|| = |c|·||v||. Compute the direction of cv knowing that when |c|v is not equal to 0, the direction of cv is either along v (for c > 0) or against v (for c < 0).
9-12.A-APR Arithmetic With Polynomials and Rational Expressions
Use polynomial identities to solve problems.
9-12.A-APR.13 Know and apply the Binomial Theorem for the expansion of (x + y)n in powers of x and y for a positive integer n, where x and y are any numbers, with coefficients determined, for example, by Pascal's Triangle.
Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context.
9-12.F-IF.16 For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship.
Extend the domain of trigonometric functions using the unit circle
9-12.F-TF.29 Use special triangles to determine geometrically the values of sine, cosine, tangent for pi/3, pi/4 and pi/6, and use the unit circle to express the values of sine, cosine, and tangent for pi–x, pi+x, and 2pi–x in terms of their values for x, where x is any real number.
9-12.S-ID.41 Use the mean and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution and to estimate population percentages. Recognize that there are data sets for which such a procedure is not appropriate. Use calculators, spreadsheets, and tables to estimate areas under the normal curve.
Calculate expected values and use them to solve problems
9-12.S-MD.50 Define a random variable for a quantity of interest by assigning a numerical value to each event in a sample space; graph the corresponding probability distribution using the same graphical displays as for data distributions.