PO 2 Describe the difference between primary and secondary sources.
PO 3 Locate information using both primary and secondary sources.
PO 4 Describe how archaeological research adds to our understanding of the past.
2 Early Civilizations
PO 1 Describe the legacy and cultures of prehistoric people in the Americas:
a characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies
b development of agriculture
PO 2 Describe the cultures and contributions of the Mogollon, Ancestral Puebloans (Anasazi), and Hohokam (e.g., location, agriculture, housing, arts, trade networks; adaptation and alteration of the environment).
PO 3 Identify other groups (e.g., Patayan, Sinagua, Salado) residing in the Southwest during this period.
PO 4 Identify the early civilizations (e.g., Maya, Aztec, Inca/Inka) that developed into empires in Central and South America.
PO 5 Recognize the achievements and features (e.g., mathematics, astronomy, architecture) of the Mayan, Aztec, and Incan/Inkan civilizations.
3 Exploration and Colonization
PO 1 Describe the reasons for early Spanish exploration of Mexico and the Southwestern region of the United States by:
a Cabeza de Vaca
c Fray Marcos de Niza
d Francisco Vásques de Coronado
PO 2 Describe the impact of Spanish colonization on the Southwest:
a establishment of missions and presidios
b lifestyle changes of native people
c contributions of Father Kino
PO 3 Describe the location and cultural characteristics of Native American tribes (e.g., O'odham, Apache, Hopi) during the Spanish period.
4 Revolution and New Nation
5 Westward Expansion
PO 1 Recognize the change of governance of the Southwest from Spain to Mexico as a result of the Mexican Revolution.
PO 2 Describe the influence of American explorers and trappers (e.g., James O. Pattie, Kit Carson, Bill Williams) on the development of the Southwest.
PO 3 Describe events that led to Arizona becoming a possession of the United States:
a Mexican – American War
b Mexican Cession (Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo)
c Gadsden Purchase
PO 4 Describe the impact of Native Americans, Hispanics, and newcomers from the United States and the world on the culture of Arizona (e.g., art, language, architecture, mining, ranching).
PO 5 Describe the conflict of cultures that occurred between newcomers and Arizona Native Americans:
a Indian Wars
b Navajo Long Walk
c formation of reservations
6 Civil War and Reconstruction
PO 1 Describe events in Arizona during the Civil War:
a Battle of Picacho Peak
b Battle of Apache Pass
c Arizona becomes a territory
7 Emergence of the Modern United States
PO 1 Describe the economic development of Arizona:
c farming and dams
PO 2 Describe the advent of innovations in transportation (e.g., steamboats, freighting, stagecoaches, railroads) that helped Arizona's growth and economy.
PO 3 Identify key individuals and groups (e.g., Charles Poston, Sharlot Hall, Buffalo Soldiers, Geronimo, George W.P. Hunt, Manuelito, Cochise) related to Arizona territorial days and early statehood.
PO 4 Recognize that Arizona changed from a territory to a state on February 14, 1912.
PO 5 Recognize the formation of Native American communities and reservations in Arizona (e.g., Gila River Reservation, Yaquis, Colorado River Indian Tribes).
8 Great Depression and World War II
PO 1 Describe changes in the lives of U.S. and Arizona residents during the Great Depression:
PO 3 Describe the impact of World War II on Arizona (e.g., economic boost, military bases, Native American and Hispanic contributions, POW camps, relocation of Japanese Americans).
PO 4 Describe how lives were affected during World War II (e.g., limited goods, women worked in factories, increased patriotism).
9 Postwar United States
PO 1 Describe changes (e.g., population growth, economic growth, cultural diversity, civil rights) that took place in Arizona during the postwar era.
10 Contemporary United States
PO 1 Describe current events using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).
PO 2 Discuss the connections between current and historical events and issues from content studied in Strand 1 using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).
PO 3 Describe the influence of key individuals (e.g., Sandra Day O'Connor, Carl Hayden, Ernest W. McFarland, Barry Goldwater, César Chavez, John McCain) in Arizona.
PO 3 Describe the possible consequences of violating laws.
4 Rights, Responsibilities, and Roles of Citizenship
PO 1 Discuss ways an individual can contribute to a school or community.
PO 2 Identify traits of character (e.g., responsibility, respect, perseverance, loyalty, integrity, involvement, justice and tolerance) that are important to the preservation and improvement of democracy.
PO 3 Describe the importance of citizens being actively involved in the democratic process (e.g., voting, campaigning, civil and community service, volunteering, jury duty).
PO 2 Describe the impact of extreme natural events (e.g., fires, volcanoes, floods, droughts) on human and physical environments.
PO 3 Describe the impact of human modifications (e.g., dams, mining, air conditioning, irrigation, agricultural) on the physical environment and ecosystems.
6 Geographic Applications
PO 1 Describe the impact of geographic features (e.g., rivers, mountains, resources, deserts, climate) on migration and the location of human activities (e.g., exploration, mining, transportation routes, settlement patterns).
PO 2 Identify that specialization improves standards of living (e.g., medical care, home building, agriculture).
PO 3 Give examples of how voluntary exchanges of goods and services can be mutually beneficial (e.g., ice cream vendor receives money, child receives ice cream; doctor receives monetary benefit, patient receives care).
PO 1 Explain how price incentives affect peoples' behavior and choices, such as colonial decisions about what crops to grow and which products to produce.