Use properties of rational and irrational numbers.
MGSE9-12.N.RN.2 Rewrite expressions involving radicals (i.e., simplify and/or use the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication, with radicals within expressions limited to square roots).
MGSE9-12.N.RN.3 Explain why the sum or product of rational numbers is rational; why the sum of a rational number and an irrational number is irrational; and why the product of a nonzero rational number and an irrational number is irrational.
MGSE9-12.A.CED.2 Create quadratic equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. (The phrase "in two or more variables" refers to formulas like the compound interest formula, in which A = P(1 + r/n)nt has multiple variables.)
MGSE9-12.A.REI.4 Solve quadratic equations in one variable.
MGSE9-12.A.REI.4a Use the method of completing the square to transform any quadratic equation in x into an equation of the form (x – p)² = q that has the same solutions. Derive the quadratic formula from ax² + bx + c = 0.
MGSE9-12.A.REI.4b Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x² = 49), taking square roots, factoring, completing the square, and the quadratic formula, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation (limit to real number solutions).
Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context
MGSE9-12.F.IF.4 Using tables, graphs, and verbal descriptions, interpret the key characteristics of a function which models the relationship between two quantities. Sketch a graph showing key features including: intercepts; interval where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior.
MGSE9-12.F.BF.3 Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them.
Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems
MGSE9-12.F.LE.3 Observe using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or (more generally) as a polynomial function.
Understand congruence in terms of rigid motions
MGSE9-12.G.CO.6 Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent.
MGSE9-12.G.CO.7 Use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to show that two triangles are congruent if and only if corresponding pairs of sides and corresponding pairs of angles are congruent.
MGSE9-12.G.CO.8 Explain how the criteria for triangle congruence (ASA, SAS, and SSS) follow from the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions. (Extend to include HL and AAS.)
Prove geometric theorems
MGSE9-12.G.CO.9 Prove theorems about lines and angles.
MGSE9-12.G.CO.12 Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods (compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, dynamic geometric software, etc.). Copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line.
MGSE9-12.G.SRT.2 Given two figures, use the definition of similarity in terms of similarity transformations to decide if they are similar; explain, using similarity transformations, the meaning of similarity for triangles as the equality of all corresponding pairs of angles and the proportionality of all corresponding pairs of sides.
MGSE9-12.G.C.1 Understand that all circles are similar.
MGSE9-12.G.C.2 Identify and describe relationships among inscribed angles, radii, chords, tangents, and secants. Include the relationship between central, inscribed, and circumscribed angles; inscribed angles on a diameter are right angles; the radius of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent where the radius intersects the circle.
MGSE9-12.G.C.5 Derive using similarity the fact that the length of the arc intercepted by an angle is proportional to the radius, and define the radian measure of the angle as the constant of proportionality; derive the formula for the area of a sector.
MGSE9-12.G.MG.3 Apply geometric methods to solve design problems (e.g., designing an object or structure to satisfy physical constraints or minimize cost; working with typographic grid systems based on ratios).
S.ID Interpreting Categorical and Quantitative Data
Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables
MGSE9-12.S.ID.6 Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related.
MGSE9-12.S.ID.6a Decide which type of function is most appropriate by observing graphed data, charted data, or by analysis of context to generate a viable (rough) function of best fit. Use this function to solve problems in context. Emphasize quadratic models.
MGSE9-12.S.CP.2 Understand that if two events A and B are independent, the probability of A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and that if the probability of two events A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, the two events are independent.
MGSE9-12.S.CP.3 Understand the conditional probability of A given B as P (A and B)/P(B). Interpret independence of A and B in terms of conditional probability; that is, the conditional probability of A given B is the same as the probability of A, and the conditional probability of B given A is the same as the probability of B.
MGSE9-12.S.CP.4 Construct and interpret two-way frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified. Use the two-way table as a sample space to decide if events are independent and to approximate conditional probabilities.