Extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents.
MGSE9-12.N.RN.1 Explain how the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to rational numbers, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents.
MGSE9-12.A.APR.5 Know and apply that the Binomial Theorem gives the expansion of (x + y)n in powers of x and y for a positive integer n, where x and y are any numbers, with coefficients determined using Pascal's Triangle.
MGSE9-12.A.APR.6 Rewrite simple rational expressions in different forms using inspection, long division, or a computer algebra system; write a(x)/b(x) in the form q(x) + r(x)/b(x), where a(x), b(x), q(x), and r(x) are polynomials with the degree of r(x) less than the degree of b(x).
MGSE9-12.A.APR.7 Understand that rational expressions form a system analogous to the rational numbers, closed under addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division by a nonzero rational expression; add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions.
MGSE9-12.A.CED.2 Create linear, quadratic, and exponential equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. (The phrase "in two or more variables" refers to formulas like the compound interest formula, in which A = P(1 + r/n)nt has multiple variables.)
MGSE9-12.A.CED.3 Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equation and/or inequalities, and interpret data points as possible (i.e. a solution) or not possible (i.e. a nonsolution) under the established constraints.
MGSE9-12.A.REI.4 Solve quadratic equations in one variable.
MGSE9-12.A.REI.4b Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x² = 49), taking square roots, factoring, completing the square, and the quadratic formula, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation.
Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context
MGSE9-12.F.IF.4 Using tables, graphs, and verbal descriptions, interpret the key characteristics of a function which models the relationship between two quantities. Sketch a graph showing key features including: intercepts; interval where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries and end behavior.
MGSE9-12.F.BF.3 Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, kf(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology.
Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems
MGSE9-12.F.LE.4 For exponential models, express as a logarithm the solution to ab to the ct power = d where a, c, and d are numbers and the base b is 2, 10, or e; evaluate the logarithm using technology.
MGSE9-12.G.C.1 Understand that all circles are similar.
MGSE9-12.G.C.2 Identify and describe relationships among inscribed angles, radii, chords, tangents, and secants. Include the relationship between central, inscribed, and circumscribed angles; inscribed angles on a diameter are right angles; the radius of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent where the radius intersects the circle.
MGSE9-12.G.C.5 Derive using similarity the fact that the length of the arc intercepted by an angle is proportional to the radius, and define the radian measure of the angle as the constant of proportionality; derive the formula for the area of a sector.
Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically
MGSE9-12.G.GPE.4 Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically.
MGSE9-12.G.GPE.5 Prove the slope criteria for parallel and perpendicular lines and use them to solve geometric problems (e.g., find the equation of a line parallel or perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point).
MGSE9-12.G.MG.3 Apply geometric methods to solve design problems (e.g., designing an object or structure to satisfy physical constraints or minimize cost; working with typographic grid systems based on ratios).
S.CP Conditional Probability and the Rules of Probability
Understand independence and conditional probability and use them to interpret data
MGSE9-12.S.CP.1 Describe categories of events as subsets of a sample space using unions, intersections, or complements of other events (or, and, not).
MGSE9-12.S.CP.2 Understand that if two events A and B are independent, the probability of A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and that if the probability of two events A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, the two events are independent.
MGSE9-12.S.CP.3 Understand the conditional probability of A given B as P (A and B)/P(B). Interpret independence of A and B in terms of conditional probability; that is, the conditional probability of A given B is the same as the probability of A, and the conditional probability of B given A is the same as the probability of B.
MGSE9-12.S.CP.4 Construct and interpret two-way frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified. Use the two-way table as a sample space to decide if events are independent and to approximate conditional probabilities.