Extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents.
MGSE9-12.N.RN.1 Explain how the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to rational numbers, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents.
MGSE9-12.A.APR.5 Know and apply that the Binomial Theorem gives the expansion of (x + y)n in powers of x and y for a positive integer n, where x and y are any numbers, with coefficients determined using Pascal's Triangle.
MGSE9-12.A.APR.6 Rewrite simple rational expressions in different forms using inspection, long division, or a computer algebra system; write a(x)/b(x) in the form q(x) + r(x)/b(x), where a(x), b(x), q(x), and r(x) are polynomials with the degree of r(x) less than the degree of b(x).
MGSE9-12.A.APR.7 Understand that rational expressions form a system analogous to the rational numbers, closed under addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division by a nonzero rational expression; add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions.
MGSE9-12.A.CED.2 Create linear, quadratic, and exponential equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. (The phrase "in two or more variables" refers to formulas like the compound interest formula, in which A = P(1 + r/n)nt has multiple variables.)
MGSE9-12.A.CED.3 Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equation and/or inequalities, and interpret data points as possible (i.e. a solution) or not possible (i.e. a non-solution) under the established constraints.
MGSE9-12.A.REI.4 Solve quadratic equations in one variable.
MGSE9-12.A.REI.4a Use the method of completing the square to transform any quadratic equation in x into an equation of the form (x – p)² = q that has the same solutions. Derive the quadratic formula from ax² + bx + c = 0.
MGSE9-12.A.REI.4b Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x² = 49), taking square roots, factoring, completing the square, and the quadratic formula, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation.
Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context
MGSE9-12.F.IF.4 Using tables, graphs, and verbal descriptions, interpret the key characteristics of a function which models the relationship between two quantities. Sketch a graph showing key features including: intercepts; interval where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior.
MGSE9-12.F.BF.3 Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, kf(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them.
Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems
MGSE9-12.F.LE.3 Observe using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or (more generally) as a polynomial function.
MGSE9-12.F.LE.4 For exponential models, express as a logarithm the solution to ab to the ct power = d where a, c, and d are numbers and the base b is 2, 10, or e; evaluate the logarithm using technology.
MGSE9-12.G.MG.3 Apply geometric methods to solve design problems (e.g., designing an object or structure to satisfy physical constraints or minimize cost; working with typographic grid systems based on ratios).
S.ID Interpreting Categorical and Quantitative Data
Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables
MGSE9-12.S.ID.6 Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related.
MGSE9-12.S.ID.6a Decide which type of function is most appropriate by observing graphed data, charted data, or by analysis of context to generate a viable (rough) function of best fit. Use this function to solve problems in context. Emphasize quadratic models.
MGSE9-12.S.CP.2 Understand that if two events A and B are independent, the probability of A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and that if the probability of two events A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, the two events are independent.
MGSE9-12.S.CP.3 Understand the conditional probability of A given B as P (A and B)/P(B). Interpret independence of A and B in terms of conditional probability; that is, the conditional probability of A given B is the same as the probability of A, and the conditional probability of B given A is the same as the probability of B.
MGSE9-12.S.CP.4 Construct and interpret two-way frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified. Use the two-way table as a sample space to decide if events are independent and to approximate conditional probabilities.