LS1-MS Molecules to Organisms: Structure and Processes
MS-LS1-1 Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are made of cells; either one cell or many different numbers and types of cells.
MS-LS1-1.LS1.A Structure and Function
MS-LS1-1.LS1.A.i All living things are made up of cells, which is the smallest unit that can be said to be alive. An organism may consist of one single cell (unicellular) or many different numbers and types of cells (multicellular).
MS-LS1-3 Use argument supported by evidence for how a living organism is a system of interacting subsystems composed of groups of cells.
MS-LS1-3.LS1.A Structure and Function
MS-LS1-3.LS1.A.i In multicellular organisms, the body is a system of multiple interacting subsystems. These subsystems are groups of cells that work together to form tissues and organs that are specialized for particular body functions.
MS-LS1-5 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for the role of photosynthesis in the cycling of matter and flow of energy into and out of organisms.
MS-LS1-5.LS1.C Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms
MS-LS1-5.LS1.C.i Plants, algae (including phytoplankton), and many microorganisms use the energy from light to make sugars (food) from carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and water through the process of photosynthesis, which also releases oxygen. These sugars can be used immediately or stored for growth or later use.
MS-LS1-6 Develop a model to describe how food is rearranged through chemical reactions forming new molecules that support growth and/or release energy as this matter moves through an organism.
MS-LS1-6.LS1.C Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms
MS-LS1-6.LS1.C.i Within individual organisms, food moves through a series of chemical reactions (cellular respiration) in which it is broken down and rearranged to form new molecules, to support growth, or to release energy.
LS2-MS-1.LS2.A.ii In any ecosystem, organisms and populations with similar requirements for food, water, oxygen, or other resources may compete with each other for limited resources, access to which consequently constrains their growth and reproduction.
LS2-MS-1.LS2.A.iii Growth of organisms and population increases are limited by access to resources.
LS2-MS-2 Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems.
LS2-MS-2.LS2.A Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems
LS2-MS-2.LS2.A.i Similarly, predatory interactions may reduce the number of organisms or eliminate whole populations of organisms. Mutually beneficial interactions, in contrast, may become so interdependent that each organism requires the other for survival. Although the species involved in these competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial interactions vary across ecosystems, the patterns of interactions of organisms with their environments, both living and nonliving, are shared.
LS2-MS-3 Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem.
LS2-MS-3.LS2.B Cycle of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
LS2-MS-3.LS2.B.i Food webs are models that demonstrate how matter and energy is transferred between producers, consumers, and decomposers as the three groups interact within an ecosystem. Transfers of matter into and out of the physical environment occur at every level. Decomposers recycle nutrients from dead plant or animal matter back to the soil in terrestrial environments or to the water in aquatic environments. The atoms that make up the organisms in an ecosystem are cycled repeatedly between the living and nonliving parts of the ecosystem.
LS2-MS-4 Develop a model to describe the flow of energy through the trophic levels of an ecosystem.
LS2-MS-4.LS2.B Cycle of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
LS2-MS-4.LS2.B.i Food webs can be broken down into multiple energy pyramids. Concepts should include the 10% rule of energy and biomass transfer between trophic levels and the environment.
LS2-MS-5 Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations.
LS2-MS-5.LS2.C Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience
LS2-MS-5.LS2.C.i Ecosystems are dynamic in nature; their characteristics can vary over time. Disruptions to any physical or biological component of an ecosystem can lead to shifts in all its populations.
LS2-MS-6 Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services.
LS2-MS-6.LS2.C Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience
LS2-MS-6.LS2.C.i Biodiversity describes the variety of species found in Earth's terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems. The completeness or integrity of an ecosystem's biodiversity is often used as a measure of its health.
LS2-MS-6.LS4.D.i Changes in biodiversity can influence humans' resources, such as food, energy, and medicines, as well as ecosystem services that humans rely on-for example, water purification and recycling.
LS3-MS Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
LS3-MS-1 Develop and use a model to describe why mutations may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism.
LS3-MS-1.LS3.A Inheritance of Traits
LS3-MS-1.LS3.A.i Genes are located in the chromosomes of cells, with each chromosome pair containing two variants of each of many distinct genes. Each distinct gene chiefly controls the production of specific proteins, which in turn affects the traits of the individual. Changes (mutations) to genes can result in changes to proteins, which can affect the structures and functions of the organism and thereby change traits.
LS3-MS-1.LS3.B.i In addition to variations that arise from sexual reproduction, genetic information can be altered because of mutations. Though rare, mutations may result in changes to the structure and function of proteins. Some changes are beneficial, others harmful, and some neutral to the organism.
LS3-MS-2.LS3.B.i In sexually reproducing organisms, each parent contributes half of the genes acquired (at random) by the offspring. Individuals have two of each chromosome and hence two alleles of each gene, one acquired from each parent. These versions may be identical or may differ from each other.
LS4-MS-1 Analyze and interpret data for patterns in the fossil record that document the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of life forms throughout the history of life on Earth under the assumption that natural laws operate today as in the past.
LS4-MS-1.LS4.A Classification of Organisms
LS4-MS-1.LS4.A.i The collection of fossils and their placement in chronological order is known as the fossil record and documents the change of many life forms throughout the history of the Earth. Anatomical similarities and differences between various organisms living today and between them and organisms in the fossil record enable the classification of living things.
LS4-MS-2 Apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for the anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms to infer relationships.
LS4-MS-2.LS4.A Classification of Organisms
LS4-MS-2.LS4.A.i The collection of fossils and their placement in chronological order is known as the fossil record and documents the change of many life forms throughout the history of the Earth. Anatomical similarities and differences between various organisms living today and between them and organisms in the fossil record enable the classification of living things.
LS4-MS-4 Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals' probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment.
LS4-MS-4.LS4.B Natural Selection
LS4-MS-4.LS4.B.i Natural selection leads to the predominance of certain traits in a population, and the suppression of others.
LS4-MS-5 Gather and synthesize information about the technologies that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms.
LS4-MS-5.LS4.B Natural Selection
LS4-MS-5.LS4.B.i In artificial selection, humans have the capacity to influence certain characteristics of organisms by selective breeding. One can choose desired parental traits determined by genes, which are then passed on to offspring.
LS4-MS-6 Use mathematical representations to support explanations of how natural selection may lead to increases and decreases of specific traits in populations over time.
LS4-MS-6.LS4.C.i Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions. Traits that support successful survival and reproduction in the new environment become more common; those that do not become less common. Thus, the distribution of traits in a population changes.