ESS1-MS-1.ESS1.B.i This model of the solar system can explain eclipses of the sun and the moon. Earth's spin axis is fixed in direction over the short-term but tilted relative to its orbit around the sun. The seasons are a result of that tilt and are caused by the differential intensity of sunlight on different areas of Earth across the year.
ESS1-MS-2 Develop and use a model to describe the role of gravity in the motions within galaxies and the solar system.
ESS1-MS-2.ESS1.A The Universe and Its Stars
ESS1-MS-2.ESS1.A.i Earth and its solar system are part of the Milky Way galaxy, which is one of many galaxies in the universe.
ESS1-MS-2.ESS1.B Earth and the Solar System
ESS1-MS-2.ESS1.B.i The solar system consists of the sun and a collection of objects, including planets, their moons, and asteroids that are held in orbit around the sun by its gravitational pull on them.
ESS1-MS-2.ESS1.B.ii The solar system appears to have formed from a disk of dust and gas, drawn together by gravity.
ESS1-MS-3 Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system.
ESS1-MS-3.ESS1.B Earth and the Solar System
ESS1-MS-3.ESS1.B.i The solar system consists of the sun and a collection of objects, including planets, their moons, and asteroids that are held in orbit around the sun by its gravitational pull on them.
ESS1-MS-4 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence from rock strata for how the geologic time scale is used to organize Earth's history.
ESS1-MS-4.ESS1.C The History of Planet Earth
ESS1-MS-4.ESS1.C.i The geologic time scale interpreted from rock strata provides a way to organize Earth's history. Analyses of rock strata and the fossil record provide only relative dates, not an absolute scale.
ESS2-MS Earth's Systems
ESS2-MS-1 Develop a model to describe the cycling of Earth's materials and the flow of energy that drives this process.
ESS2-MS-1.ESS2.A Earth's Materials and Systems
ESS2-MS-1.ESS2.A.i All Earth processes are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling within and among the planet's systems. This energy is derived from the sun and Earth's hot interior. The energy that flows and matter that cycles produce chemical and physical changes in Earth's materials and living organisms.
ESS2-MS-2 Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth's surface at varying time and spatial scales.
ESS2-MS-2.ESS2.A Earth's Materials and Systems
ESS2-MS-2.ESS2.A.i The planet's systems interact over scales that range from microscopic to global in size, and they operate over fractions of a second to billions of years. These interactions have shaped Earth's history and will determine its future.
ESS2-MS-2.ESS2.C The Roles of Water in Earth's Surface Processes
ESS2-MS-2.ESS2.C.i Water's movements-both on the land and underground-cause weathering and erosion, which change the land's surface features and create underground formations.
ESS2-MS-3 Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions.
ESS2-MS-3.ESS1.C The History of Planet Earth
ESS2-MS-3.ESS1.C.i Tectonic processes continually generate new ocean sea floor at ridges and destroy old sea floor at trenches.
ESS2-MS-5 Collect data to provide evidence for how the motions and complex interactions of air masses results in changes in weather conditions.
ESS2-MS-5.ESS2.C The Roles of Water in Earth's Surface Processes
ESS2-MS-5.ESS2.C.i The complex patterns of the changes and the movement of water in the atmosphere, determined by winds, landforms, and ocean temperatures and currents, are major determinants of local weather patterns.
ESS2-MS-5.ESS2.D.i Because these patterns are so complex, weather can only be predicted using probability.
ESS2-MS-6 Develop and use a model to describe how unequal heating and rotation of the Earth cause patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates.
ESS2-MS-6.ESS2.C The Roles of Water in Earth's Surface Processes
ESS2-MS-6.ESS2.C.i Variations in density due to variations in temperature and salinity drive a global pattern of interconnected ocean currents.
ESS2-MS-6.ESS2.D Weather and Climate
ESS2-MS-6.ESS2.D.i Weather and climate are influenced by interactions involving sunlight, the ocean, the atmosphere, ice, landforms, and living things. These interactions vary with latitude, altitude, and local and regional geography, all of which can affect oceanic and atmospheric flow patterns.
ESS2-MS-6.ESS2.D.ii The ocean exerts a major influence on weather and climate by absorbing energy from the sun, releasing it over time, and globally redistributing it through ocean currents.
ESS3-MS Earth and Human Activity
ESS3-MS-1 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how the uneven distributions of Earth's mineral, energy, and groundwater resources are the result of past and current geoscience processes.
ESS3-MS-1.ESS3.A Natural Resources
ESS3-MS-1.ESS3.A.i Humans depend on Earth's land, ocean, atmosphere, and biosphere for many different resources. Minerals, fresh water, and biosphere resources are limited, and many are not renewable or replaceable over human lifetimes. These resources are distributed unevenly around the planet as a result of past geologic processes.
ESS3-MS-3.ESS3.C.ii Technology and engineering can potentially mitigate impacts on Earth's systems as both human populations and per-capita consumption of natural resources increase.
ESS3-MS-4 Construct an argument supported by evidence for how increases in human population and per-capita consumption of natural resources impact Earth's systems.
ESS3-MS-4.ESS3.C Human Impacts on Earth Systems
ESS3-MS-4.ESS3.C.i Technology and engineering can potentially mitigate impacts on Earth's systems as both human populations and per-capita consumption of natural resources increase.
ESS3-MS-5 Ask questions to interpret evidence of the factors that cause climate variability over time.
ESS3-MS-5.ESS3.C Human Impacts on Earth Systems
ESS3-MS-5.ESS3.C.i Mitigating current changes in climate depends on understanding climate science. Current scientific models indicate that human activities, such as the release of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion, are the primary factors in the present-day measured rise in Earth's mean surface temperature. Natural activities, such as changes in incoming solar radiation, also contribute to changing global temperatures.