The study of government and civics equips students to understand the nature of government and the unique characteristics of representative democracy in the United States, including its fundamental principles, structure and the role of citizens. Understanding the historical development of structures of power, authority and governance and their evolving functions in contemporary U.S. society and other parts of the world is essential for developing civic competence. An understanding of civic ideals and practices of citizenship is critical to full participation in society and is a central purpose of the social studies.
Formation of Governments
SS-EP-1.1.1 Students will identify the basic purposes of local government (to establish order, provide security and accomplish common goals); give examples of services local governments provide (e.g., police and fire protection roads and snow removal, garbage pick-up,) and identify how they pay for these services taxes).
SS-EP-1.1.2 Students will identify and explain the purpose of rules within organizations (e.g., school, clubs, teams) and compare rules with laws.
SS-EP-1.2.1 Students will describe how their local government is structured (e.g., mayor, city council, judge-executive, fiscal court, local courts) and compare their local government to other community governments in Kentucky.
Rights and Responsibilities
SS-EP-1.3.1 Students will define basic democratic ideas (e.g., liberty, justice, equality, rights, responsibility) and explain why they are important today.
SS-EP-1.3.2 Students will identify and give examples of good citizenship at home, at school and in the community (e.g., helping with chores, obeying rules, participating in community service projects such as recycling, conserving natural resources, donating food/supplies) and explain why civic engagement in the community is important.
Culture is the way of life shared by a group of people, including their ideas and traditions. Cultures reflect the values and beliefs of groups in different ways (e.g., art, music, literature, religion); however, there are universals (e.g., food, clothing, shelter, communication) connecting all cultures. Culture influences viewpoints, rules and institutions in a global society. Students should understand that people form cultural groups throughout the United States and the World, and that issues and challenges unite and divide them.
Elements of Culture
SS-EP-2.1.1 Students will describe cultural elements (e.g., beliefs, traditions, languages, skills, literature, the arts).
SS-EP-2.1.2 Students will study a variety of diverse cultures locally and in the world today and explain the importance of appreciating and understanding other cultures.
SS-EP-2.3.1 Students will describe various forms of interactions (compromise, cooperation, conflict, competition) that occur between individuals/ groups at home and at school.
SS-EP-2.3.2 Students will identify appropriate conflict resolution strategies (e.g., compromise, cooperation, communication).
Economics includes the study of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. Students need to understand how their economic decisions affect them, others, the nation and the world. The purpose of economic education is to enable individuals to function effectively both in their own personal lives and as citizens and participants in an increasingly connected world economy. Students need to understand the benefits and costs of economic interaction and interdependence among people, societies and governments.
SS-EP-3.1.1 Students will define basic economic terms related to scarcity (e.g., opportunity cost, wants and needs, limited productive resources-natural, human, capital) and explain that scarcity requires people to make economic choices and incur opportunity costs.
SS-EP-3.2.1 Students will identify and give examples of economic institutions (banks) and explain how they help people deal with the problem of scarcity (e.g., loan money, save money) in today's market economy.
SS-EP-3.3.1 Students will define basic economic terms related to markets (e.g., market economy, markets, wants and needs, goods and services, profit, consumer, producer, supply and demand, barter, money, trade, advertising).
SS-EP-3.3.2 Students will explain different ways that people acquire goods and services (by trading/bartering goods and services for other goods and services or by using money).
Production, Distribution, and Consumption
SS-EP-3.4.1 Students will define basic economic terms related to production, distribution and consumption (e.g., goods and services, wants and needs, supply and demand, specialization, entrepreneur) and describe various ways goods and services are distributed (e.g., by price, first-come-first-served, sharing equally).
SS-EP-3.4.2 Students will describe how new knowledge, technology/tools, and specialization increases productivity in our community, state, nation and world.
SS-EP-3.4.3 Students will define interdependence and give examples of how people in our communities, states, nation and world depend on each other for goods and services.
Geography includes the study of the five fundamental themes of location, place, regions, movement and human/environmental interaction. Students need geographic knowledge to analyze issues and problems to better understand how humans have interacted with their environment over time, how geography has impacted settlement and population, and how geographic factors influence climate, culture, the economy and world events. A geographic perspective also enables students to better understand the past and present and to prepare for the future.
The Use of Geographic Tools
SS-EP-4.1.1 Students will use geographic tools (e.g., maps, globes, mental maps, charts, graphs) to locate and describe familiar places at home, school and the community.
SS-EP-4.1.2 Students will use geographic tools to identify major landforms (e.g., continents, mountain ranges), bodies of water (e.g., oceans, major rivers) and natural resources on Earth's surface and use relative location.
SS-EP-4.1.3 Students will describe how different factors (e.g. rivers, mountains) influence where human activities are located in the community.
SS-EP-4.2.1 Students will describe places on Earth's surface by their physical characteristics (e.g., climate, landforms, bodies of water).
SS-EP-4.3.1 Students will describe patterns of human settlement in places and regions on the Earth's surface.
SS-EP-4.3.2 Students will describe how technology helps us move, settle and interact in the modern world.
SS-EP-4.4.1 Students will describe ways people adapt to/modify the physical environment to meet their basic needs (food, shelter, clothing).
SS-EP-4.4.2 Students will describe how the physical environment can both promote and restrict human activities.
History is an account of events, people, ideas and their interaction over time that can be interpreted through multiple perspectives. In order for students to understand the present and plan for the future, they must understand the past. Studying history engages students in the lives, aspirations, struggles, accomplishments and failures of real people. Students need to think in an historical context in order to understand significant ideas, beliefs, themes, patterns and events, and how individuals and societies have changed over time in Kentucky, the United States and the World.
The Factual and Interpretive Nature of History
SS-EP-5.1.1 Students will use a variety of primary and secondary sources (e.g., artifacts, diaries, timelines) to interpret the past.
SS-EP-5.2.1 Students will identify significant patriotic and historical songs, symbols, monuments/landmarks (e.g., The Star- Spangled Banner, the Underground Railroad, the Statue of Liberty) and patriotic holidays (e.g., Veteran's Day, Martin Luther King's birthday, Fourth of July) and explain their historical significance.
SS-EP-5.2.2 Students will identify and compare the early cultures of diverse groups of Native Americans (e.g., Northwest, Southwest, Plains, Eastern Woodlands) and explain why they settled in what is now the United States.
SS-EP-5.2.3 Students will describe change over time in communication, technology, transportation and education in the community.