The study of government and civics equips students to understand the nature of government and the unique characteristics of representative democracy in the United States, including its fundamental principles, structure and the role of citizens. Understanding the historical development of structures of power, authority and governance and their evolving functions in contemporary U.S. society and other parts of the world is essential for developing civic competence. An understanding of civic ideals and practices of citizenship is critical to full participation in society and is a central purpose of the social studies.
Formation of Governments
SS-05-1.1.1 Students will describe the basic purposes of the U.S. Government as defined in the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution (to establish justice, to ensure domestic tranquility, to provide for the common defense, to promote the general welfare, to secure the blessings of liberty); give examples of services the U.S. Government provides (e.g., armed forces, interstate highways, national parks) and analyze the importance of these services to citizens today.
SS-05-1.1.2 Students will explain and give examples of how democratic governments function (by making, enacting and enforcing laws) to promote the "common good" (e.g., public smoking ban, speed limits, seat belt requirements).
SS-05-1.2.1 Students will identify the three branches of the U.S. Government, explain the basic duties of each branch (executive-enforce the laws, legislative-make the laws, judicial-interpret the laws) and identify important national/federal offices/leaders, (President, Vice-President, Congress, House, Senate, U.S. Senators, U.S. Representatives, U.S. Supreme Court, judges) associated with each branch.
SS-05-1.2.2 Students will explain why the framers of the Constitution felt it was important to establish a government where powers are shared across different levels (local, state, national/federal) and branches (executive, legislative, judicial).
SS-05-1.3.1 Students will explain the basic principles of democracy (e.g., justice, equality, responsibility, freedom) found in significant U.S. historical documents (Declaration of Independence, U. S. Constitution, Bill of Rights) and analyze why they are important to citizens today.
SS-05-1.3.2 Students will describe specific rights and responsibilities individuals have as citizens of the United States (e.g., voting in national elections) and explain why civic engagement is necessary to preserve a democratic society.
Culture is the way of life shared by a group of people, including their ideas and traditions. Cultures reflect the values and beliefs of groups in different ways (e.g., art, music, literature, religion); however, there are universals (e.g., food, clothing, shelter, communication) connecting all cultures. Culture influences viewpoints, rules and institutions in a global society. Students should understand that people form cultural groups throughout the United States and the World, and that issues and challenges unite and divide them.
Elements of Culture
SS-05-2.1.1 Students will identify early cultures (e.g., English, Spanish, French, West African) in the United States and analyze their similarities and differences.
SS-05-2.2.1 Students will describe social institutions (government, economy, education, religion, family) in the United States and explain their role in the growth and development of the nation.
Interactions Among Individuals and Groups
SS-05-2.3.1 Students will describe various forms of interactions (compromise, cooperation, conflict) that occurred between diverse groups (e.g., Native Americans, European Explorers, English colonists, British Parliament) in the history of the United States.
SS-05-2.3.2 Students will give examples of conflicts between individuals or groups and describe appropriate conflict resolution strategies (e.g., compromise, cooperation, communication).
Economics includes the study of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. Students need to understand how their economic decisions affect them, others, the nation and the world. The purpose of economic education is to enable individuals to function effectively both in their own personal lives and as citizens and participants in an increasingly connected world economy. Students need to understand the benefits and costs of economic interaction and interdependence among people, societies and governments.
SS-05-3.1.1 Students will describe scarcity and explain how scarcity required people in different periods in the U.S. (Colonization, Expansion, Twentieth Century to Present) to make economic choices (e.g., use of productive resources- natural, human, capital) and incur opportunity costs.
Economic Systems and Institutions
SS-05-3.2.1 Students will explain how profits motivated individuals/businesses in the U.S. (Expansion, Industrialization) to take risks in producing goods and services.
SS-05-3.3.1 Students will give examples of markets in different periods of U.S. History (Colonization, Expansion, Industrialization, Twentieth Century to Present) and explain similarities and differences.
SS-05-3.3.2 Students will explain how competition among buyers and sellers influences the price of goods and services in our state, nation and world.
Production, Distribution, and Consumption
SS-05-3.4.1 Students will describe production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in the history of the U.S. (Colonization, Industrialization, Twentieth Century to Present).
SS-05-3.4.2 Students will describe how new knowledge, technology/tools and specialization increase/increased productivity in the U.S. (Colonization, Industrialization, Twentieth Century to Present).
SS-05-3.4.3 Students will define interdependence and give examples of how people in our communities, states, nation and world depend on each other for goods and services.
Geography includes the study of the five fundamental themes of location, place, regions, movement and human/environmental interaction. Students need geographic knowledge to analyze issues and problems to better understand how humans have interacted with their environment over time, how geography has impacted settlement and population, and how geographic factors influence climate, culture, the economy and world events. A geographic perspective also enables students to better understand the past and present and to prepare for the future.
The Use of Geographic Tools
SS-05-4.1.1 Students will use geographic tools (e.g., maps, charts, graphs) to identify natural resources and other physical characteristics (e.g., major landforms, major bodies of water, weather, climate, roads, bridges) and analyze patterns of movement and settlement in the United States.
SS-05-4.1.2 Students will use geographic tools to locate and describe major landforms, bodies of water, places and objects in the United States by their absolute location.
SS-05-4.1.3 Students will describe how different factors (e.g. rivers, mountains) influence where human activities were/are located in the United States.
SS-05-4.1.4 Students explain how factors in one location can impact other locations (e.g., natural disasters, building dams).
SS-05-4.3.1 Students will explain patterns of human settlement in the early development of the United States and explain how these patterns were influenced by physical characteristics (e.g., climate, landforms, bodies of water).
SS-05-4.3.2 Students will describe how advances in technology (e.g., dams, reservoirs, roads, irrigation) allow people to settle in places previously inaccessible in the United States.
SS-05-4.4.1 Students will explain and give examples of how people adapted to/modified the physical environment (e.g., natural resources, physical geography, natural disasters) to meet their needs during the history of the U.S. (Colonization, Expansion) and analyze the impact on their environment.
SS-05-4.4.2 Students will describe how the physical environment (e.g., mountains as barriers for protection, rivers as barriers of transportation) both promoted and restricted human activities during the early settlement of the U.S. (Colonization, Expansion).
SS-05-4.4.3 Students will describe how individuals/groups may have different perspectives about the use of land (e.g., farming, industrial, residential, recreational).
History is an account of events, people, ideas and their interaction over time that can be interpreted through multiple perspectives. In order for students to understand the present and plan for the future, they must understand the past. Studying history engages students in the lives, aspirations, struggles, accomplishments and failures of real people. Students need to think in an historical context in order to understand significant ideas, beliefs, themes, patterns and events, and how individuals and societies have changed over time in Kentucky, the United States and the World.
The Factual and Interpretive Nature of History
SS-05-5.1.1 Students will use a variety of primary and secondary sources (e.g., artifacts, diaries, maps, timelines) to describe significant events in the history of the U.S. and interpret different perspectives.
The History of the United States
SS-05-5.2.1 Students will identify historical documents, selected readings and speeches (e.g., Mayflower Compact, Emancipation Proclamation, Dr. Martin Luther King's speech: I Have a Dream) and explain their historical significance.
SS-05-5.2.2 Students will explain reasons (e.g., freedoms, opportunities, fleeing negative situations) immigrants came to America long ago (Colonization and Settlement, Industrialization and Immigration, Twentieth Century to Present) and compare with why immigrants come to America today.
SS-05-5.2.3 Students will compare change over time (Colonization, Industrialization, Twentieth Century to Present) in communication, technology, transportation and education.
SS-05-5.2.4 Students will describe significant historical events in each of the broad historical periods and eras in U.S. history (Colonization and Settlement, Revolution and a New Nation, Expansion and Conflict, Industrialization and Immigration, Twentieth Century to Present) and explain cause and effect relationships.