The study of government and civics equips students to understand the nature of government and the unique characteristics of representative democracy in the United States, including its fundamental principles, structure and the role of citizens. Understanding the historical development of structures of power, authority, and governance and their evolving functions in contemporary U.S. society and other parts of the world is essential for developing civic competence. An understanding of civic ideals and practices of citizenship is critical to full participation in society and is a central purpose of the social studies.
Formation of Governments
SS-06-1.1.1 Students will compare purposes and sources of power in the most common forms of government (monarchy, democracy, republic, dictatorship) in the present day.
SS-06-1.1.2 Students will describe and give examples to support how present day democratic governments function to preserve and protect the rights (e.g., voting), liberty and property of their citizens by making, enacting and enforcing appropriate rules and laws.
Culture is the way of life shared by a group of people, including their ideas and traditions. Cultures reflect the values and beliefs of groups in different ways (e.g., art, music, literature, religion); however, there are universals (e.g., food, clothing, shelter, communication) connecting all cultures. Culture influences viewpoints, rules and institutions in a global society. Students should understand that people form cultural groups throughout the United States and the World, and that issues and challenges unite and divide them.
Elements of Culture
SS-06-2.1.1 Students will explain how elements of culture (e.g., language, the arts, customs, beliefs, literature) define specific groups in the global world of the present day and may result in unique perspectives.
SS-06-2.2.1 Students will compare how cultures (present day) develop social institutions (family, religion, education, government, economy) to respond to human needs, structure society and influence behavior.
Interactions Among Individuals and Groups
SS-06-2.3.1 Students will explain how conflict and competition (e.g., political, economic, religious, ethnic) occur among individuals and groups in the present day.
SS-06-2.3.2 Students will explain how compromise and cooperation are possible choices to resolve conflict among individuals and groups in the present day.
Economics includes the study of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. Students need to understand how their economic decisions affect them, others, the nation and the world. The purpose of economic education is to enable individuals to function effectively both in their own personal lives and as citizens and participants in an increasingly connected world economy. Students need to understand the benefits and costs of economic interaction and interdependence among people, societies and governments.
SS-06-3.1.1 Students will explain and give examples of how scarcity requires individuals, groups and governments in the present day to make decisions about how productive resources (natural resources, human resources capital goods) are used.
SS-06-3.3.2 Students will explain how money (unit of account) can be used to express the market value of goods and services and how money makes it easier to trade, borrow, invest and save in the present day.
SS-06-3.3.3 Students will explain how competition among buyers and sellers impacts the price of goods and services in the present day.
Geography includes the study of the five fundamental themes of location, place, regions, movement and human/environmental interaction. Students need geographic knowledge to analyze issues and problems to better understand how humans have interacted with their environment over time, how geography has impacted settlement and population, and how geographic factors influence climate, culture, the economy and world events. A geographic perspective also enables students to better understand the past and present and to prepare for the future.
The Use of Geographic Tools
SS-06-4.1.1 Students will use a variety of geographic tools (maps, photographs, charts, graphs, databases, satellite images) to interpret patterns and locations on Earth's surface in the present day.
SS-06-4.1.2 Students will describe how different factors (e.g., rivers, mountains, plains) affect where human activities are located in the present day.
SS-06-4.2.1 Students will describe how regions in the present day are made distinctive by human characteristics (e.g., dams, roads, urban centers) and physical characteristics (e.g., mountains, bodies of water, valleys) that create advantages and disadvantages for human activities (e.g., exploration, migration, trade, settlement, development).
SS-06-4.2.2 Students will describe and give examples of how places and regions in the present day change over time as technologies, resources and knowledge become available.
SS-06-4.3.1 Students will describe patterns of human settlement in the present day and explain how these patterns are influenced by human needs.
SS-06-4.3.2 Students will explain why and give examples of how human populations may change and/or migrate because of factors such as war, famine, disease, economic opportunity and technology in the present day.
SS-06-4.4.1 Students will explain how technology in the present day assists human modification (e.g., irrigation, clearing land, building roads) of the physical environment in regions.
SS-06-4.4.2 Students will describe ways in which the physical environment (e.g., natural resources, physical geography, natural disasters) both promotes and limits human activities (e.g., exploration, migration, trade, settlement, development) in the present day.
SS-06-4.4.3 Students will explain how the natural resources of a place or region impact its political, social and economic development in the present day.
SS-06-4.4.4 Students will explain how individual and group perspectives impact the use of natural resources (e.g., urban development, recycling) in the present day.
History is an account of events, people, ideas and their interaction over time that can be interpreted through multiple perspectives. In order for students to understand the present and plan for the future, they must understand the past. Studying history engages students in the lives, aspirations, struggles, accomplishments and failures of real people. Students need to think in an historical context in order to understand significant ideas, beliefs, themes, patterns and events, and how individuals and societies have changed over time in Kentucky, the United States and the World.
The Factual and Interpretive Nature of History
SS-06-5.1.1 Students will use a variety of tools (e.g., primary and secondary sources) to describe and explain historical events and conditions and to analyze the perspectives of different individuals and groups (e.g., gender, race, region, ethnic group, age, economic status, religion, political group) in present day regions.