The study of government and civics equips students to understand the nature of government and the unique characteristics of representative democracy in the United States, including its fundamental principles, structure and the role of citizens. Understanding the historical development of structures of power, authority, and governance and their evolving functions in contemporary U.S. society and other parts of the world is essential for developing civic competence. An understanding of civic ideals and practices of citizenship is critical to full participation in society and is a central purpose of the social studies.
Formation of Governments
SS-07-1.1.1 Students will compare purposes and sources of power in the most common forms of government (monarchy, democracy, republic, dictatorship) in early civilizations prior to 1500 A.D.
Culture is the way of life shared by a group of people, including their ideas and traditions. Cultures reflect the values and beliefs of groups in different ways (e.g., art, music, literature, religion); however, there are universals (e.g., food, clothing, shelter, communication) connecting all cultures. Culture influences viewpoints, rules and institutions in a global society. Students should understand that people form cultural groups throughout the United States and the World, and that issues and challenges unite and divide them.
Elements of Culture
SS-07-2.1.1 Students will explain how elements of culture (e.g., language, the arts, customs, beliefs, literature) defined specific groups in the early civilizations prior to 1500 A.D. and resulted in unique perspectives.
SS-07-2.2.1 Students will compare how cultures (early civilizations prior to 1500 A.D.) developed social institutions (family, religion, education, government, economy) to respond to human needs, structure society and influence behavior.
Economics includes the study of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. Students need to understand how their economic decisions affect them, others, the nation and the world. The purpose of economic education is to enable individuals to function effectively both in their own personal lives and as citizens and participants in an increasingly connected world economy. Students need to understand the benefits and costs of economic interaction and interdependence among people, societies and governments.
SS-07-3.1.1 Students will explain and give examples of how scarcity required individuals, groups and governments in early civilizations prior to 1500 A.D. to make decisions about how productive resources (natural resources, human resources, capital goods) were used.
Production, Distribution, and Consumption
SS-07-3.4.1 Students will explain ways in which the basic economic questions about the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services were addressed in early civilizations prior to 1500 A.D.
SS-07-3.4.2 Students will describe how new knowledge, technology/tools and specialization increased productivity in early civilizations prior to 1500 A.D.
Geography includes the study of the five fundamental themes of location, place, regions, movement and human/environmental interaction. Students need geographic knowledge to analyze issues and problems to better understand how humans have interacted with their environment over time, how geography has impacted settlement and population, and how geographic factors influence climate, culture, the economy and world events. A geographic perspective also enables students to better understand the past and present and to prepare for the future.
The Use of Geographic Tools
SS-07-4.1.1 Students will use a variety of geographic tools (maps, photographs, charts, graphs, databases) to interpret patterns and locations on Earth's surface in early civilizations prior to 1500 A.D.
SS-07-4.2.1 Students will describe how regions in early civilizations prior to 1500 A.D. were made distinctive by human characteristics (e.g., dams, irrigation, roads) and physical characteristics (e.g., mountains, bodies of water, valleys) that created advantages and disadvantages for human activities (e.g., exploration, migration, trade, settlement).
SS-07-4.3.2 Students will explain why and give examples of how human populations changed and/or migrated because of factors such as war, disease, economic opportunity and technology in early civilizations prior to 1500 A.D.
SS-07-4.4.1 Students will explain how technology in early civilizations prior to 1500 A.D. assisted human modification (e.g., irrigation, clearing land, building roads) of the physical environment.
SS-07-4.4.2 Students will describe ways in which the physical environment (e.g., natural resources, physical geography, natural disasters) both promoted and limited human activities (e.g., exploration, migration, trade, settlement, development) in early civilizations prior to 1500 A.D.
History is an account of events, people, ideas and their interaction over time that can be interpreted through multiple perspectives. In order for students to understand the present and plan for the future, they must understand the past. Studying history engages students in the lives, aspirations, struggles, accomplishments and failures of real people. Students need to think in an historical context in order to understand significant ideas, beliefs, themes, patterns and events, and how individuals and societies have changed over time in Kentucky, the United States and the World.
The Factual and Interpretive Nature of History
SS-07-5.1.1 Students will use a variety of tools (e.g. primary and secondary sources) to describe and explain historical events and conditions and to analyze the perspectives of different individuals and groups (e.g., gender, race, region, ethnic group, age, economic status, religion, political group) in early civilizations prior to 1500 A.D.
SS-07-5.3.2 Students will describe the rise of classical civilizations and empires (Greece and Rome) and explain how these civilizations had lasting impacts on the world in government, philosophy, architecture, art, drama and literature.
SS-07-5.3.3 Students will describe the rise of non-Western cultures (e.g., Egyptian, Chinese, Indian, Persian) and explain ways in which these cultures influenced government, philosophy, art, drama and literature in the present day.
SS-07-5.3.4 Students will describe developments during the Middle Ages (feudalism, nation states, monarchies, religious institutions, limited government, trade, trade associations, capitalism) and give examples of how these developments influenced modern societies.