f Ask questions and seek answers to explain why different results sometimes occur in repeated investigations.
2 Explain concepts related to objects and materials, position and motion of objects, and properties of magnetism.
a Investigate to conclude that the weight of an object is always the sum of its parts, regardless of how it is assembled, (e.g., Lego creation/separate blocks, bucket/cups of sand, roll/stacks of pennies, bag/individual potatoes, etc.)
b Explore and identify physical changes of matter, including melting, freezing, boiling, evaporation, and condensation,
d Differentiate between potential and kinetic energy and recognize their conversions.
Potential to kinetic (e.g., winding a clock/clock begins ticking)
Kinetic to potential (e.g., roller coaster moving downward/upward to the top of the hill)
e Explain how light waves travel (e.g., in a straight line until they strike an object, through transparent and translucent objects, from reflecting and refracting surfaces, at the surface of opaque objects).
f Differentiate the movement of vibrations in waves (e.g., sound and seismic waves), and cite examples to explain that vibrations move through different materials at different speeds.
g Cite evidence to explain why heating or cooling may change the properties of materials (e.g., boiling an egg, evaporating water, chilling gelatin, making ice cream, etc.)
3 Describe the characteristics, structures, life cycles, and environments of organisms.
a Research and explain diverse life forms (including vertebrates and invertebrates) that live in different environments and the structures that serve different functions in their survival (e.g., methods of movement, defense, camouflage).
e Recall that organisms can survive only when in environments (deserts, tundras, forests, grasslands, taigas, wetlands) in which their needs are met and interpret the interdependency of plants and animals within a food chain, including producer, consumer, decomposer, herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, predator, and prey.
f Recognize that cells vary greatly in size, structure, and function, and that some cells and tiny organisms can be seen only with a microscope.
4 Develop an understanding of the properties of Earth materials, objects in the sky, and changes in Earth and sky.
a Recall that soil is made up of various materials (weathered rock, minerals, plant and animal remains, living organisms.)
b Compare and contrast changes in the Earth's surface that are due to slow processes (erosion, weathering, mountain building) and rapid processes (landslides, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, floods, asteroid collisions).