1 Understand the biological and cultural processes that shaped the earliest human communities.
a Examine a variety of scientific methods used by archaeologists, geologists, and anthropologists to determine the dates of early human communities.
b Investigate the approximate chronology and sequence of early hominid evolution in Africa from the Australopithecines to Homo erectus.
c Identify current and past theories regarding the processes by which human groups populated the major world regions.
d Discuss possible social, cultural, and/or religious meanings inferred from late Paleolithic cave paintings.
2 Understand unique features of Asian, European and African civilizations and how they have impacted the development of those civilizations.
a Identify and describe the following governmental forms: democracy, aristocracy/oligarchy, absolutism, constitutionalism, totalitarianism, monarchy and republic.
b Analyze the concept of "civilization" (e.g., the various criteria used to define "civilization"; fundamental differences between civilizations and other forms of social organization, such as hunter-gatherer bands, Neolithic agricultural societies, and pastoral nomadic societies; how Mohenjo-Daro meets criteria for defining civilization).
b Analyze the influence of the economic and political framework of Roman society on global expansion of civilization (e.g., how Roman unity contributed to the growth of trade among lands of the Mediterranean basin; the importance of Roman commercial connections with Sub-Saharan Africa, India, and East Asia; the history of the Punic Wars and the consequences of the wars for Rome; the major phases of Roman expansion, including the Roman occupation of Britain).
5 Understand the civil and human development of various civilizations of Asia, Europe, and Africa from rise to fall.
a Cite evidence of human social relations as to the cause of the fall of civilizations of Asia, Europe and Africa.
b Describe the relationship among various groups of people (e.g., peasants and aristocracy, dictators and common people, monarchs and subjects, men and women, Christians and Muslims, etc.) and how it may have characterized the societies in various regions in of Europe, Asia, and Africa from the fall of the Roman Empire through the Middle Ages.