6.03 Explain the impact of the Agricultural Revolution, including: barter economy, domestication of plants and animals, emergence of permanent settlements, food surpluses, labor specialization, and new sources of clothing and shelter.
Students will analyze the geographic, political, economic, and cultural structures of the civilization of ancient Mesopotamia.
6.05 Identify and locate geographical features of ancient Mesopotamia, including: the Black Sea, the Euphrates River, the Mediterranean Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Tigris River, and the Zagros Mountains.
6.15 Explain the structure of ancient Egyptian society, including: relationships between groups of people, how social classes were organized by occupation, the positions of pharoahs as gods/kings, and the role of slaves.
6.17 Analyze the impact of key figures from ancient Egypt, including: growth under the leadership of Queen Hatshepsut and her economic policies, Ramses the Great's military conquests leading to growth of the kingdom, and the significance of the discovery of Tutankhamun's tomb on the understanding of ancient Egypt.
6.18 Analyze the achievements of ancient Egyptian civilization, including: hieroglyphics, papyrus, and the pyramids and Sphinx at Giza.
Students will analyze the geographic, political, economic, and cultural structures of ancient Israel.
6.20 Identify and locate geographical features of ancient Israel, including: the Dead Sea, Jerusalem, the Jordan River, the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, and the Sinai Peninsula.
6.21 Describe the development of the ancient Israelites, and explain the reasons for their movements from Mesopotamia to Canaan (later called Israel), from Canaan to Egypt, and from Egypt back to Canaan.
6.22 Describe the origins and central features of Judaism: key person(s) (Abraham and Moses), sacred texts (The Tanakh, i.e., the Hebrew Bible), and basic beliefs (monotheism, Ten Commandments, and emphasis on individual worth and personal responsibility).
6.26 Explain the emergence of the Harappan civilization in the Indus River Valley as an early agricultural civilization, and describe its achievements, including: architecture built with bricks, arranging roads into a series of grid-systems, and sanitation and sewer systems.
6.30 Identify the long-lasting intellectual traditions that emerged during the late empire of ancient India, including: medical education, medical techniques, and mathematics (e.g., Hindu-Arabic numerals).
6.32 Analyze the influence of geographic features on the origins of ancient Chinese civilization in the Yellow River Valley, and explain how China's geography helped create a unique yet diverse cultural identity that was isolated from the rest of the world.
6.34 Identify the political and cultural problems prevalent in the time of Confucius and how the philosophy of Confucianism and The Analects emphasized the concepts of kinship, order, and hierarchy to address these problems.
6.40 Analyze how the geographical features of ancient Greece, including its mountainous terrain and access to the Mediterranean Sea, contributed to its organization into city-states, role in maritime trade, and colonies in the Mediterranean.
6.43 Explain the characteristics of the major Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta, including: advantages of each geographic location, approaches to education, practice of slavery, status of women, and styles of government.
6.45 Analyze the causes and consequences of the Peloponnesian Wars, including how the growing political conflict between Athens and Sparta led to war and left the city-states open to conquest by the Macedonians.
6.46 Explain the polytheistic religion of ancient Greece, with respect to beliefs about the humanlike qualities of the deities, their importance in everyday life, and the emergence of the Olympic Games to honor Zeus.
6.47 Explain the historical significance of ancient Greek literature, including how the Iliad and the Odyssey provide insight into the life of the ancient Greeks.
6.48 Examine the influence of ancient Greek philosophers (e.g., Aristotle, Plato, and Socrates) and their impact on education and society in Greece.
6.57 Analyze how innovations in engineering and architecture contributed to Roman expansion, including the role of: aqueducts, arches, bridges, the Colosseum, domes, roads, and sanitation.
6.58 Explain the polytheistic religion of ancient Rome, with respect to beliefs about the humanlike qualities of the deities and their importance in everyday life.
6.59 Describe the origins and central features of Christianity: key person(s) (Jesus and Paul), sacred texts (The Bible), and basic beliefs (monotheism, sin and forgiveness, eternal life, and Jesus as the Messiah).
6.62 Analyze the fall of the Western Roman Empire, including difficulty governing its large territory, political corruption, economic instability, and attacks by Germanic tribes, and identify the continuation of the Eastern Roman Empire as the Byzantine Empire.