1 The student understands the origins, similarities, and differences of American Indian groups in Texas and North America before European exploration.
A explain the possible origins of American Indian groups in Texas and North America;
B identify American Indian groups in Texas and North America before European exploration such as the Lipan Apache, Karankawa, Caddo, and Jumano;
C describe the regions in which American Indians lived and identify American Indian groups remaining in Texas such as the Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo, Alabama-Coushatta, and Kickapoo; and
D compare the ways of life of American Indian groups in Texas and North America before European exploration.
2 The student understands the causes and effects of European exploration and colonization of Texas and North America.
A summarize motivations for European exploration and settlement of Texas, including economic opportunity, competition, and the desire for expansion;
B identify the accomplishments and explain the impact of significant explorers, including Cabeza de Vaca; Francisco Coronado; and René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, on the settlement of Texas;
C explain when, where, and why the Spanish established settlements and Catholic missions in Texas as well as important individuals such as José de Escandón;
D identify Texas' role in the Mexican War of Independence and the war's impact on the development of Texas; and
E identify the accomplishments and explain the economic motivations and impact of significant empresarios, including Stephen F. Austin and Martín de León, on the settlement of Texas.
3 The student understands the importance of the Texas Revolution, the Republic of Texas, and the annexation of Texas to the United States.
A analyze the causes, major events, and effects of the Texas Revolution, including the Battle of the Alamo, the Texas Declaration of Independence, the Runaway Scrape, and the Battle of San Jacinto;
B summarize the significant contributions of individuals such as Texians William B. Travis, James Bowie, David Crockett, George Childress, and Sidney Sherman; Tejanos Juan Antonio Padilla, Carlos Espalier, Juan N. Seguín, Plácido Benavides, and José Francisco Ruiz; Mexicans Antonio López de Santa Anna and Vicente Filisola; and non-combatants Susanna Dickinson and Enrique Esparza;
C identify leaders important to the founding of Texas as a republic and state, including José Antonio Navarro, Sam Houston, Mirabeau Lamar, and Anson Jones;
D describe the successes, problems, and organizations of the Republic of Texas such as the establishment of a constitution, economic struggles, relations with American Indians, and the Texas Rangers; and
E explain the events that led to the annexation of Texas to the United States, including the impact of the U.S.-Mexican War.
4 The student understands the political, economic, and social changes in Texas during the last half of the 19th century.
A describe the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Texas;
B explain the growth, development, and impact of the cattle industry, including contributions made by Charles Goodnight, Richard King, and Lizzie Johnson;
C identify the impact of railroads on life in Texas, including changes to cities and major industries; and
D examine the effects upon American Indian life resulting from changes in Texas, including the Red River War, building of U.S. forts and railroads, and loss of buffalo.
5 The student understands important issues, events, and individuals of the 20th century in Texas.
A identify the impact of various issues and events on life in Texas such as urbanization, increased use of oil and gas, the Great Depression, the Dust Bowl, and World War II;
B explain the development and impact of the oil and gas industry upon industrialization and urbanization in Texas, including important places and people such as Spindletop and Pattillo Higgins; and
C identify the accomplishments of notable individuals such as John Tower, Scott Joplin, Audie Murphy, Cleto Rodríguez, Stanley Marcus, Bessie Coleman, Raul A. Gonzalez Jr., and other local notable individuals.