2.1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which a) observations and predictions are made and questions are formed; b) observations are differentiated from personal interpretation; c) observations are repeated to ensure accuracy; d) two or more characteristics or properties are used to classify items; e) length, volume, mass, and temperature are measured in metric units and standard English units using the proper tools; f) time is measured using the proper tools; g) conditions that influence a change are identified and inferences are made; h) data are collected and recorded, and bar graphs are constructed using numbered axes; i) data are analyzed, and unexpected or unusual quantitative data are recognized; j) conclusions are drawn; k) observations and data are communicated; l) simple physical models are designed and constructed to clarify explanations and show relationships; and m) current applications are used to reinforce science concepts.
conduct simple experiments, make predictions, gather data from those experiments, repeat observations to improve accuracy, and draw conclusions.
differentiate among simple observations and personal interpretations.
classify items, using two or more attributes such as size, shape, color, texture, and weight.
measure time using both digital and analog clocks.
identify conditions that influence a change in an experiment.
construct and interpret simple models (e.g., weathering and erosion of land surfaces — 2.7).
analyze sets of objects, numerical data, or pictures, and create basic categories to organize the data (descriptive or numerical).
judge which, if any, collected data in a small set appear to be unexpected or unusual.
construct and interpret picture and bar graphs with numbered axes depicting the distribution of data.
communicate observations and data.
Force, Motion, and Energy
2.2 The student will investigate and understand that natural and artificial magnets have certain characteristics and attract specific types of metals. Key concepts include a) magnetism, iron, magnetic/nonmagnetic, poles, attract/repel; and b) important applications of magnetism.
identify the north and south magnetic poles of magnets.
identify important applications of magnets in everyday life:
refrigerator magnets and chalkboard letters
paper clip holders
credit card magnetic strips.
compare natural magnets (lodestone or magnetite) and artificial magnets.
create a new application for using a magnet.
2.3 The student will investigate and understand basic properties of solids, liquids, and gases. Key concepts include a) identification of distinguishing characteristics of solids, liquids, and gases; b) measurement of the mass and volume of solids and liquids; and c) changes in phases of matter with the addition or removal of energy.
classify materials as to whether they are liquids, solids, or gases.
conduct an investigation to observe the condensation of water.
design and conduct an investigation to determine basic factors that affect the evaporation of water.
identify the phases of water and the uses of water in its various phases in the home and at school.
2.4 The student will investigate and understand that plants and animals undergo a series of orderly changes as they mature and grow. Key concepts include a) animal life cycles; and b) plant life cycles.
describe changes in the life cycles of a butterfly and a white-tailed deer.
2.5 The student will investigate and understand that living things are part of a system. Key concepts include a) living organisms are interdependent with their living and nonliving surroundings; b) an animal's habitat includes adequate food, water, shelter or cover, and space; c) habitats change over time due to many influences; and d) fossils provide information about living systems that were on Earth years ago.
classify objects as to whether they are living or nonliving.
describe the basic components of an animal habitat (food, water, shelter or cover, and space).
classify the parts of an animal's habitat as living or nonliving.
construct and interpret simple models of different kinds of habitats, including a forest and a stream.
predict and describe seasonal changes in habitat and their effects on plants and animals, for example, how trees change through the seasons and how animals respond to changes in the seasons.
describe how animals are dependent on their surroundings, for example, how squirrels and other animals are affected by the loss of forest habitat.
describe how scientists use the study of fossils to show past weather/climate conditions and environmental characteristics.
Interrelationships in Earth/Space Systems
2.6 The student will investigate and understand basic types, changes, and patterns of weather. Key concepts include a) identification of common storms and other weather phenomena; b) the uses and importance of measuring, recording, and interpreting weather data; and c) the uses and importance of tracking weather data over time.
observe and describe seasonal weather patterns and local variations.
2.7 The student will investigate and understand that weather and seasonal changes affect plants, animals, and their surroundings. Key concepts include a) effects of weather and seasonal changes on the growth and behavior of living things; and b) weathering and erosion of land surfaces.
identify growth and behavioral responses of plants and animals to weather and seasonal changes. Examples of responses that are adaptive include migration, hibernation, camouflage, and dormancy.
identify animals that migrate, hibernate, or show other changes throughout the seasons or in the presence of adverse environmental conditions.
evaluate the usefulness of camouflage in an animal's habitat (for example, coloration patterns of frogs).
2.8 The student will investigate and understand that plants produce oxygen and food, are a source of useful products, and provide benefits in nature. Key concepts include a) important plant products are identified and classified; b) the availability of plant products affects the development of a geographic area; c) plants provide oxygen, homes, and food for many animals; and d) plants can help reduce erosion.