SCI.SEP1.A.m.6 Ask questions that can be investigated within the scope of the classroom, outdoor environment, and museums and other public facilities with available resources and, when appropriate, frame a hypothesis based on observations and scientific principles.
SCI.SEP1.A.m.7 Ask questions that challenge the premise(s) of an argument or the interpretation of a data set.
SCI.SEP1.B Defining Problems
SCI.SEP1.B.m Students define a design problem that can be solved through the development of an object, tool, process, or system, and includes multiple criteria and constraints, including scientific knowledge that may limit possible solutions.
SCI.SEP2 Students develop and use models, in conjunction with using crosscutting concepts and disciplinary core ideas, to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.SEP2.A Developing Models
SCI.SEP2.A.m Students develop, use, and revise models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems. This includes the following:
SCI.SEP2.A.m.1 Evaluate limitations of a model for a proposed object or tool.
SCI.SEP2.A.m.2 Develop or modify a model—based on evidence—to match what happens if a variable or component of a system is changed.
SCI.SEP2.A.m.3 Use and develop a model of simple systems with uncertain and less predictable factors.
SCI.SEP2.A.m.4 Develop and/or revise a model to show the relationships among variables, including those that are not observable but predict observable phenomena.
SCI.SEP2.A.m.5 Develop and use a model to predict and describe phenomena.
SCI.SEP2.A.m.6 Develop a model to describe unobservable mechanisms.
SCI.SEP2.A.m.7 Develop and use a model to generate data to test ideas about phenomena in natural or designed systems, including those representing inputs and outputs, and those at unobservable scales.
SCI.SEP3 Students plan and carry out investigations, in conjunction with using crosscutting concepts and disciplinary core ideas, to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.SEP3.A Planning and Conducting Investigations
SCI.SEP3.A.m Students plan and carry out investigations that use multiple variables and provide evidence to support explanations or solutions. This includes the following:
SCI.SEP3.A.m.1 Individually and collaboratively plan an investigation, identifying: independent and dependent variables and controls, tools needed to do the gathering, how measurements will be recorded, and how many data are needed to support a claim.
SCI.SEP3.A.m.5 Collect data about the performance of a proposed object, tool, process, or system under a range of conditions.
SCI.SEP4 Students analyze and interpret data, in conjunction with using crosscutting concepts and disciplinary core ideas, to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.SEP4.A Analyze and Interpret Data
SCI.SEP4.A.m Students extend quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis. This includes the following:
SCI.SEP4.A.m.1 Construct, analyze, or interpret graphical displays of data and large data sets to identify linear and nonlinear relationships.
SCI.SEP4.A.m.2 Use graphical displays (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, and tables) of large data sets to identify temporal and spatial relationships.
SCI.SEP4.A.m.3 Distinguish between causal and correlational relationships in data.
SCI.SEP4.A.m.4 Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for explanations of phenomena.
SCI.SEP5.A.m.6 Use digital tools and mathematical concepts and arguments to test and compare proposed solutions to an engineering design problem.
SCI.SEP6 Students construct explanations and design solutions, in conjunction with using crosscutting concepts and disciplinary core ideas, to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.SEP6.A Construct an Explanation
SCI.SEP6.A.m Students construct explanations supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories. This includes the following:
SCI.SEP6.A.m.1 Construct an explanation that includes qualitative or quantitative relationships between variables that predict and describe phenomena.
SCI.SEP6.A.m.2 Construct an explanation using models or representations.
SCI.SEP6.A.m.3 Construct a scientific explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from sources, including the students' own experiments. Solutions should build on the following assumption: theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future.
SCI.SEP6.A.m.4 Apply scientific ideas, principles, and evidence to construct, revise, or use an explanation for real world phenomena, examples, or events.
SCI.SEP6.B.m.2 Undertake a design project, engaging in the design cycle, to construct and implement a solution that meets specific design criteria and constraints.
SCI.SEP6.B.m.3 Optimize performance of a design by prioritizing criteria, making trade-offs, testing, revising, and retesting.
SCI.SEP7 Students engage in argument from evidence, in conjunction with using crosscutting concepts and disciplinary core ideas, to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.SEP7.A Argue from Evidence
SCI.SEP7.A.m Students construct a convincing argument that supports or refutes claims for either explanations or solutions about the natural and designed world. This includes the following:
SCI.SEP7.A.m.1 Compare and critique two arguments on the same topic. Analyze whether they emphasize similar or different evidence and interpretations of facts.
SCI.SEP7.A.m.2 Respectfully provide and receive critiques about one's explanations, procedures, models, and questions by citing relevant evidence and posing and responding to questions that elicit pertinent elaboration and detail.
SCI.SEP7.A.m.3 Construct, use, and present oral and written arguments supported by empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support or refute an explanation or a model for a phenomenon or a solution to a problem.
SCI.SEP7.A.m.4 Make an oral or written argument that supports or refutes the advertised performance of a device, process, or system. Based the argument on empirical evidence concerning whether or not the technology meets relevant criteria and constraints.
SCI.SEP7.A.m.5 Evaluate competing design solutions based on jointly developed and agreed-upon design criteria.
SCI.SEP8 Students will obtain, evaluate and communicate information, in conjunction with using crosscutting concepts and disciplinary core ideas, to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.SEP8.A Obtain, Evaluate, and Communicate Information
SCI.SEP8.A.m Students evaluate the merit and validity of ideas and methods. This includes the following:
SCI.SEP8.A.m.1 Critically read scientific texts adapted for classroom use to determine the central ideas, to obtain scientific and technical information, and to describe patterns in and evidence about the natural and designed world(s).
SCI.SEP8.A.m.2 Clarify claims and findings by integrating text-based qualitative and quantitative scientific information with information contained in media and visual displays.
SCI.SEP8.A.m.3 Gather, read, and synthesize information from multiple appropriate sources and assess the credibility, accuracy, and possible bias of each publication. Describe how they are supported or not supported by evidence and evaluate methods used.
SCI.SEP8.A.m.4 Evaluate data, hypotheses, and conclusions in scientific and technical texts in light of competing information or accounts.
SCI.SEP8.A.m.5 Communicate scientific and technical information (e.g., about a proposed object, tool, process, or system) in writing and through oral presentations.