SCI.ETS Engineering, Technology, and the Application of Science
SCI.ETS1 Students use science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and an understanding of engineering design to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.ETS1.A Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems
SCI.ETS1.A.m The more precisely a design task's criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that are likely to limit possible solutions.
SCI.ETS1.B Developing Possible Solutions
SCI.ETS1.B.m.i A solution needs to be tested and then modified on the basis of the test results in order to improve it.
SCI.ETS1.B.m.ii There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet the criteria and constraints of a problem.
SCI.ETS1.B.m.iii Sometimes parts of different solutions can be combined to create a solution that is better than any of its predecessors.
SCI.ETS1.B.m.iv Models of all kinds are important for testing solutions.
SCI.ETS1.C Optimizing the Design Solution
SCI.ETS1.C.m.i Although one design may not perform the best across all tests, identifying the characteristics of the design that performed the best in each test can provide useful information for the redesign process—that is, some of those characteristics may be incorporated into the new design.
SCI.ETS1.C.m.ii The iterative process of testing the most promising solutions and modifying what is proposed on the basis of the test results leads to greater refinement and ultimately to an optimal solution.
SCI.ETS2 Students use science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and an understanding of the links among Engineering, Technology, Science, and Society to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.ETS2.A Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology
SCI.ETS2.A.m.i Engineering advances have led to important discoveries in virtually every field of science, and scientific discoveries have led to the development of entire industries and engineered systems.
SCI.ETS2.A.m.ii Science and technology drive each other forward.
SCI.ETS2.B Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World
SCI.ETS2.B.m.i All human activity draws on natural resources and has both short and long-term consequences, positive as well as negative, for the health of people and the natural environment.
SCI.ETS2.B.m.ii The uses of technologies are driven by people's needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions.
SCI.ETS2.B.m.iii Technology use varies over time and from region to region.
SCI.ETS3 Students use science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and an understanding of the nature of science and engineering to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.ETS3.A Science and Engineering Are Human Endeavors
SCI.ETS3.A.m.i Individuals and teams from many nations, cultures and backgrounds have contributed to advances in science and engineering.
SCI.ETS3.A.m.ii Scientists and engineers are persistent, use creativity, reasoning, and skepticism, and remain open to new ideas.
SCI.ETS3.A.m.iii Science and engineering are influenced by what is valued in society.
SCI.ETS3.B Science and Engineering Are Unique Ways of Thinking with Different Purposes
SCI.ETS3.B.m.i Science asks questions to understand the natural world and assumes that objects and events in natural systems occur in consistent patterns that are understandable through measurement and observation. Science carefully considers and evaluates anomalies in data and evidence.
SCI.ETS3.B.m.ii Engineering seeks solutions to human problems, including issues that arise due to human interaction with the environment. It uses some of the same practices as science and often applies scientific principles to solutions.
SCI.ETS3.B.m.iii Science and engineering have direct impacts on the quality of life for all people. Therefore, scientists and engineers need to pursue their work in an ethical manner that requires honesty, fairness and dedication to public health, safety and welfare.
SCI.ETS3.C Science and Engineering Use Multiple Approaches to Create New Knowledge and Solve Problems
SCI.ETS3.C.m.i A theory is an explanation of some aspect of the natural world. Scientists develop theories by using multiple approaches. Validity of these theories and explanations is increased through a peer review process that tests and evaluates the evidence supporting scientific claims.
SCI.ETS3.C.m.ii Theories are explanations for observable phenomena based on a body of evidence developed over time. A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested to evaluate a theory. Scientific laws describe cause and effect relationships among observable phenomena.
SCI.ETS3.C.m.iii Engineers develop solutions using multiple approaches and evaluate their solutions against criteria such as cost, safety, time and performance. This evaluation often involves trade-offs between constraints to find the optimal solution.