a Child enjoys reading and reading-related activities (e.g., selects reading and reading-related activities when given a choice, pretends to read to others).
selecting the reading center during free play or listening attentively during read alouds
reenacting a favorite story with felt board characters
"reading" a book to a doll during dramatic play
using props like menus and phone books in the dramatic play area.
Use a variety of fiction and non-fiction books to supplement center and project activities (e.g., books on building and architecture in the block area, books on the class theme, menus in dramatic play, and books on plants in the science center).
Provide audiobooks that children can listen to while following along in the printed text.
Create, use, and refresh a classroom library, that reflects gender, cultural, and linguistic diversity (e.g., story, alphabet, non-fiction, fiction, computerbased story books, big books, poetry, fairy tales and fables, plays, magazines, newspapers, and class-created books).
Encourage families to bring or suggest examples of books or printed materials that represent their home and culture.
b Child interacts appropriately with books and other materials in a print-rich environment.
picking a book from the shelf, pretending to read, and returning it to the shelf when they are finished
looking at an e-reader, magazines, and newspapers in an orderly fashion, turning one page at a time, progressing from front to back
selecting and playing a specific audiobook from the MP3 player.
Teach children to use technology-based text materials and provide opportunities for use.
Demonstrate appropriate use of written materials (e.g., lists, menus, songs, signs, and charts).
Encourage children to return materials to their appropriate place in the classroom by using information on the labels.
Ensure that materials are accessible so children can explore and use them independently.
Encourage children to experiment using literacy materials in novel ways (e.g., pretending to use a magazine as a cookbook in the dramatic play center; using stickers as stamps and note cards as envelopes to mail letters).
c Child asks to be read to or asks the meaning of written text.
selecting a favorite book for an adult to read before rest time
showing the teacher a note from home and asking what it says
asking the meaning of the writing on the side of a delivery van.
Model getting meaning from text in books and other print in the classroom. (e.g., using think-alouds, comments, and questions as you are reading).
Encourage children to ask questions about meaning and purpose of written language.
Discuss meanings of words and passages before and after reading (e.g., before reading the story "The Princess and the Pea" teacher provides a definition of the word "mattress"; after reading the book, children and teacher discuss and revisit the term "mattress.").
Encourage children to make suggestions and request for books and other related materials about topics of interest and then make an effort to provide them (e.g., check them out from the public library or download from the internet).
Listen and respond positively to children's comments, questions, and interest in written materials (e.g., asking follow-up questions, finding materials for the child related to the topic, reading a book related to the topic, encouraging the child to re-read the book.).
2 Shows age-appropriate phonological awareness
a Child can distinguish individual words within spoken phrases or sentences.
placing one block for each word spoken by the teacher
taking a step forward for each word heard in a familiar nursery rhyme
participating in reciting poems and singing songs during large group time.
Make obvious pauses between words to emphasize the separation of words within the phrases and help children differentiate each word.
Model stomping your feet, once for each word in a phrase or sentence.
Play games that help children distinguish individual words within spoken phrases or sentences (e.g., clapping hands together once for each word).
b Child combines words to make a compound word (e.g., "foot" + "ball" = "football").
experimenting with the creation of compound words
using picture cards to create compound words
creating compound words by adding a second part to the first part provided by the teacher.
Provide and demonstrate the use of compound word puzzles and picture cards for children to use when practicing blending compound words they say aloud.
Play a word game, saying the first part of a compound word and asking children to provide a variety of second halves that make real compound words (e.g., say "sun" and encourage responses like "flower,""shine," and "burn").
Provide pictures or oral examples of multi-syllabic words that are and are not compound words and ask children to identify compound words (e.g., show or say "doghouse," "catfish," "camel," "starfish," "horse." Ask child to identify the compound words).
c Child deletes a word from a compound word (e.g., "starfish" – "star" = "fish").
experimenting with the separation of compound words
using picture cards to separate compound words
breaking apart compound words by removing the second part from the compound word provided by the teacher.
Provide and demonstrate the use of compound word puzzles and picture cards for children to use when practicing taking apart compound words they say aloud.
Say compound words and then leave off the first part of the compound words (e.g., Teacher says "say backpack"; child responds, "backpack"; teacher says, "now say backpack without back"; child says "pack.").
Say compound words and then leave off the second part of the compound words (e.g., Teacher says "say watermelon"; child responds, "watermelon"; teacher says, "now say watermelon without melon"; child says "water.").
Play a word game, saying a compound word and asking children to say the first or second part of the word (e.g., say "sunshine" and encourage responses of "sun" or "shine").
Provide additional practice opportunities and appropriate corrective feedback, if a child responds incorrectly. Provide the correct response if necessary. (e.g., "that's not quite right,' "let's try again," "listen carefully," "that's just right").
d Child combines syllables into words (e.g., "sis" + "ter" = "sister").
providing the second syllable of familiar words when the teacher says the first syllable (e.g., says "cil" when teacher says "pen")
identifying the number of syllables in familiar words and names
Play a clapping game, clapping once while saying each syllable in children's names, and encourage children to join in (e.g., Lin-da gets two claps, Pat gets one clap, and Mar-ga-ret gets three claps).
Provide pictures of familiar two-syllable words cut into two pieces. First model, then encourage the children to practice putting the pictures together while saying the word aloud.
Say the first syllable in a familiar two-syllable word and have children provide the second syllable.
Model and then ask children to repeat the correct response individually or occasionally as a group.
Provide pictures, objects, and non-verbal gestures to support children's understanding and demonstration of the blending task.
In a small group, designate each child to represent the first or second syllable in a two-syllable word using color-coded syllable cards. Ask children to find their matching partner. (e.g., child with yellow card that says "wa" finds the partner with the yellow card that says "ter").
e Child can delete a syllable from a word (e.g., "trumpet" – "trum" = "pet" or "candy" – "dy" = "can").
hearing the sounds of two syllables and providing the remaining syllable when the teacher asks what is left when the first syllable is removed (e.g., teacher says "spoon; what do you hear if I take away sp?").
with prompting, with a picture cut in half, pointing to the portion of the picture that represents the remaining syllable
with prompting, with a spoken two-syllable word, saying the first syllable (e.g., "pencil / pen, picture / pic, slipper / slip").
Play word games (e.g., say a child's name, then say the name without the first syllable and encourage children to repeat with their own name and the names of their friends).
Provide pictures of familiar three-syllable words cut into three pieces. First model, then encourage children to practice taking the pictures apart while saying the word aloud without the first or last syllable.
Play a game in which children say two-syllable words and then say the words with the syllables reversed (e.g., say, "monkey," then "keymon").
In a small group, designate each child to represent the first or second syllable in a two-syllable word and stand with their partner. Have children squat or hide to model being deleted from the word.
To provide additional instructional support, say two-syllable words more slowly with emphasis on each syllable and with deliberate and obvious pauses between syllables.
Provide a basket with several real items that are two or three syllables. Ask child to select one item and move the item up and down to indicate the syllables. (e.g., helicopter: "he" "Ii" "cop" "tor"; tractor: "trac" "tor").
f Child combines onset and rime to form a familiar one-syllable word with and without pictorial support (e.g., when shown several pictures, and adult says /c/ + "at," child can select the picture of the cat).
saying the name of familiar one-syllable words when the teacher says the word with a pause between the onset (first sound) and the rime (vowel sound and rest of word)
picking up all the toys in the room that begin with the /b/ sound, like baby, blocks, and books
saying their own names with a separation between the first sound and the rest of the sounds
identifying which two of three words rhyme and which word does not.
d Child names some letter sounds (e.g., when shown a letter, can accurately say the sound the letter makes).
naming the letter sounds in their first name as they attempt to write them
saying the correct letter sound while pointing to a letter in a book
saying the correct sound for the first letter(s) of familiar words.
Ask children to say the sound of a letter within a word written in a poem, song, sign, book, or other printed text.
Give children a set of three to five letters and ask them to say the sound each letter makes.
Pronounce isolated sounds without an /uh/, when articulating individual sounds (e.g., /b/ instead of /buh/).
Model spelling children's names aloud using letter sounds instead of letter names, and provide children with opportunities to practice this with their own and each other's names.
Highlight for children instances when certain letters may represent less common sounds in words (e.g., Juan, Phillip, xylophone, giraffe).
4 Demonstrates comprehension of text read aloud
a Child retells or reenacts story after it is read aloud.
guessing correctly what food The Very Hungry Caterpillar will eat next
using puppets or flannel board pieces to retell a familiar story
relating what happened to a character in a book to something similar that happened to them (e.g., saying "One time, I got scared about going to school." after reading Froggy Goes to School)
recalling information from a story and using the information in retellings and dramatic play.
Provide dramatic play props for children to use when reenacting a fairy tale or familiar short story read alouds.
Help children retell a story with a clear beginning, middle, and end, sometimes using picture sequence cards of stories.
Provide flannel board materials and/or hand puppets for children to use when retelling a familiar story aloud with peers.
Provide an environment where children's initiative to modify the environment to extend the learning is encouraged (e.g., child independently takes or creates props from the classroom to the outside in order to turn the sandbox into a pirate ship).
b Child asks and answers appropriate questions about the story (e.g., "What just happened?" "What might happen next?" "What would happen if…?" "What was so silly about…?" "How would you feel if you…?).
responding to open-ended questions about a story, (e.g., "What do you think will happen next?" or "Why do you think he did that?")