c Describe how systems are nested and that systems may be thought of as containing subsystems (as well as being a subsystem of a larger system) and apply the understanding to analyze systems.
A2 Students use models to examine a variety of real-world phenomena from the physical setting, the living environment, and the technological world and compare advantages and disadvantages of various models.
a Compare different types of models that can be used to represent the same thing (including models of chemical reactions, motion, or cells) in order to match the purpose and complexity of a model to its use.
b Give examples of systems including ecosystems, Earth systems, and technologies that appear to be unchanging (even though things may be changing within the system) and identify any feedback mechanisms that may be modifying the changes.
A4 Students use scale to describe objects, phenomena, or processes related to Earth, space, matter, and mechanical and living systems.
a Describe how some things change or work differently at different scales.
b Use proportions, averages, and ranges to describe small and large extremes of scale.
B Students plan, conduct, analyze data from and communicate results of in-depth scientific investigations; and they use a systematic process, tools, equipment, and a variety of materials to create a technological design and produce a solution or product to meet a specified need.
B1 Students plan, conduct, analyze data from, and communicate results of investigations, including simple experiments.
a Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations.
C Students understand the history and nature of scientific knowledge and technology, the processes of inquiry and technological design, and the impacts science and technology have on society and the environment.
C1 Students describe how scientists use varied and systematic approaches to investigations that may lead to further investigations.
a Explain how the type of question informs the type of investigation.
b Explain why it is important to identify and control variables and replicate trials in experiments.
c Describe how scientists' analyses of findings can lead to new investigations.
c Describe and provide examples that illustrate that science is a human endeavor that generates explanations based on verifiable evidence that are subject to change when new evidence does not match existing explanations.
D Students understand the universal nature of matter, energy, force, and motion and identify how these relationships are exhibited in Earth Systems, in the solar system, and throughout the universe.
D1 Students explain the movements and describe the location, composition, and characteristics of our solar system and universe, including planets, the sun, and galaxies.
a Describe the different kinds of objects in the solar system including planets, sun, moons, asteroids, and comets.
b Explain the motions that cause days, years, phases of the moon, and eclipses.
c Describe the location of our solar system in its galaxy and explain that other galaxies exist and that they include stars and planets.
D2 Students describe the various cycles, physical and biological forces and processes, position in space, energy transformations, and human actions that affect the short-term and long-term changes to the Earth.
a Explain how the tilt of Earth's rotational axis relative to the plane of its yearly orbit around the sun affects the day length and sunlight intensity to cause seasons.
b Describe Earth Systems - biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere - and cycles and interactions within them (including water moving among and between them, rocks forming and transforming, and weather formation).
f Explain and apply the understanding that substances have characteristic properties, including density, boiling point, and solubility and these properties are not dependent on the amount of matter present.
D4 Students describe the force of gravity, the motion of objects, the properties of waves, and the wavelike property of energy in light waves.
a Describe the similarities and differences in the motion of sound vibrations, earthquakes, and light waves.
b Explain the relationship among visible light, the electromagnetic spectrum, and sight.
c Describe and apply an understanding of how the gravitational force between any two objects would change if their mass or the distance between them changed.
d Describe and apply an understanding of how electric currents and magnets can exert force on each other.
e Describe and apply an understanding of the effects of multiple forces on an object, and how unbalanced forces will cause changes in the speed or direction.
E Students understand that cells are the basic unit of life, that all life as we know it has evolved through genetic transfer and natural selection to create a great diversity of organisms, and that these organisms create interdependent webs through which matter and energy flow. Students understand similarities and differences between humans and other organisms and the interconnections of these interdependent webs.
E1 Students differentiate among organisms based on biological characteristics and identify patterns of similarity.
a Compare physical characteristics that differentiate organisms into groups (including plants that use sunlight to make their own food, animals that consume energy-rich food, and organisms that cannot easily be classified as either).
E2 Students examine how the characteristics of the physical, non-living (abiotic) environment, the types and behaviors of living (biotic) organisms, and the flow of matter and energy affect organisms and the ecosystem of which they are part.
a List various kinds of resources within different biomes for which organisms compete.
b Describe ways in which two types of organisms may interact (including competition, predator/prey, producer/consumer/decomposer, parasitism, and mutualism) and describe the positive and negative consequences of such interactions.
b Explain the relationship among cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems, including how tissues and organs serve the needs of cells and organisms.
c Compare the structures, systems, and interactions that allow single-celled organisms and multi-celled plants and animals, including humans, to defend themselves, acquire and use energy, self-regulate, reproduce, and coordinate movement.