ESS1 The Earth and Earth materials, as we know them today, have developed over long periods of time, through constant change processes.
1 Atmosphere, Climate, and Weather
S:ESS1:4:1.1 Explain how water exists in the atmosphere in different forms and describe how it changes from one form to another through various processes such as freezing, condensation, precipitation and evaporation.
S:ESS1:4:1.2 Explain that air surrounds the Earth, it takes up space, and it moves around as wind.
S:ESS1:4:1.3 Based on data collected from daily weather observations, describe weather changes or weather patterns.
S:ESS1:4:1.4 Explain how the use of scientific tools helps to extend senses and gather data about weather (i.e., weather/wind vane– direction; wind sock– wind intensity; anemometer– speed; thermometer– temperature; meter sticks/rulers– snow depth; rain gauges– rain amount in inches).
2 Composition and Features
S:ESS1:4:2.1 Describe Earth materials such as gases found in the atmosphere, rocks, soils, and water in its liquid and solid states.
ESS2 The Earth is part of a solar system, made up of distinct parts, which have temporal and spatial interrelationships.
1 Earth, Sun and Moon
S:ESS2:4:1.1 Explain that night and day are caused by the Earth's rotation on its axis; and that the Earth rotates approximately once, every 24 hours.
S:ESS2:4:1.2 Describe the Sun as a star.
S:ESS2:4:2.1 Recognize that the Sun provides the light and heat necessary to maintain the temperature of the Earth.
3 Solar System
S:ESS2:4:3.1 Recognize that the Moon orbits the Earth.
S:ESS2:4:3.2 Recognize that the Earth is one of a number of planets that orbit the Sun.
4 View from Earth
S:ESS2:4:4.1 Recognize that although star patterns seen in the sky appear to move slowly each night from east to west they actually remain the same, and explain why different stars can be seen during different seasons.
S:ESS2:4:4.2 Explain why the planets look like stars, and why, over a period of time, they appear to wander among the constellations.
ESS3 The origin and evolution of galaxies and the universe demonstrate fundamental principles of physical science across vast distances and time.
1 Size and Scale
S:ESS3:4:1.1 Recognize that astronomical objects in space are massive in size and are separated from one another by vast distances.
S:ESS3:4:1.2 Explain that telescopes magnify the size of distant objects and significantly increase the number of these objects that can be viewed from Earth.
2 Stars and Galaxies
S:ESS3:4:2.1 Recognize and describe the stars, like the Sun, as spherical in nature.
S:ESS3:4:2.2 Recognize that stars come in different colors, and that the Sun is a yellow star.
ESS4 The growth of scientific knowledge in Earth Space Science has been advanced through the development of technology and is used (alone or in combination with other sciences) to identify, understand and solve local and global issues.
1 Design Technology
S:ESS4:4:1.1 Recognize that man uses various mechanical devices to record changes in the weather and the Earth.
S:ESS4:4:2.1 Demonstrate the use of simple instruments to collect weather data, including thermometers, windsocks, meter sticks, and rain gauges.