RL.4.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean); explain how figurative language (e.g., simile, metaphor) enriches a text. (See grade 4 Language Standards 4–6 on applying knowledge of vocabulary to reading.)
RL.4.5 Explain major differences among prose, poetry, and drama and refer to the structural elements of each (e.g., paragraphs and chapters for prose; stanza and verse for poetry; scene, stage directions, cast of characters for drama) when writing or speaking about a text.
RL.4.9 Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.
RL.4.10 Independently and proficiently read and comprehend literary texts representing a variety of genres, cultures, and perspectives and exhibiting complexity appropriate for at least grade 4. (See Appendix A & Appendix A New Research.)