9-12. Extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents.
9-12.N-RN.1 Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents.
9-12. Use properties of rational and irrational numbers.
9-12.N-RN.3 Explain why the sum or product of two rational numbers is rational; that the sum of a rational number and an irrational number is irrational; and that the product of a nonzero rational number and an irrational number is irrational.
9-12. Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems.
9-12.N-Q.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays.
9-12.A-APR Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Expressions
9-12. Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials
9-12.A-APR.1 Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials.
9-12.A-REI Reasoning with Equations and Inequalities
9-12. Understand solving equations as a process of reasoning and explain the reasoning
9-12.A-REI.1 Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following from the equality of numbers asserted at the previous step, starting from the assumption that the original equation has a solution. Construct a viable argument to justify a solution method.
9-12.A-REI.3 Solve quadratic equations in one variable.
9-12.A-REI.3.a Use the method of completing the square to transform any quadratic equation in x into an equation of the form (x – p)² = q that has the same solutions. Derive the quadratic formula from this form.
9-12.A-REI.3.b Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x² = 49), taking square roots, completing the square, the quadratic formula and factoring, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation. Recognize when the quadratic formula gives complex solutions and write them as a ± bi for real numbers a and b.
9-12.A-REI.8 Explain why the x-coordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y = f(x) and y = g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions approximately, e.g., using technology to graph the functions, make tables of values, or find successive approximations. Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear, polynomial, rational, absolute value, exponential, and logarithmic functions.
9-12.A-REI.9 Graph the solutions to a linear inequality in two variables as a half-plane (excluding the boundary in the case of a strict inequality), and graph the solution set to a system of linear inequalities in two variables as the intersection of the corresponding half-planes.
9-12. Understand the concept of a function and use function notation
9-12.F-IF.1 Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x).
9-12. Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context
9-12.F-IF.4 For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship.
9-12.F-BF.3 Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology.
9-12.F-LE.2 Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two input-output pairs (include reading these from a table).
9-12. Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables
9-12.S-ID.4 Summarize categorical data for two categories in two-way frequency tables. Interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data (including joint, marginal, and conditional relative frequencies). Recognize possible associations and trends in the data.
9-12.S-ID.5 Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related.
9-12.S-ID.8 Distinguish between correlation and causation.
9-12.S-CP Conditional Probability and the Rules of Probability
9-12. Understand independence and conditional probability and use them to interpret data
9-12.S-CP.1 Describe events as subsets of a sample space (the set of outcomes) using characteristics (or categories) of the outcomes, or as unions, intersections, or complements of other events (or, and, not).
9-12.S-CP.2 Understand that two events A and B are independent if the probability of A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and use this characterization to determine if they are independent.