SC.MS.1.3 Motion is described relative to a reference frame that must be shared with others and is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it. The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion.
SC.MS.1.3.a Apply Newton's Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.
SC.MS.1.4.c Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact.
SC.MS.1.5 Kinetic energy can be distinguished from the various forms of potential energy.
SC.MS.1.5.a Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and the speed of an object.
SC.MS.1.5.d Plan an investigation to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, the mass, and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample.
SC.MS.1.6 Energy changes to and from each type can be tracked through physical or chemical interactions. The relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states and amounts of matter.
SC.MS.1.6.a Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer.
SC.MS.1.6.b Plan an investigation to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, the mass, and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample.
SC.MS.1.8 A simple wave model has a repeating pattern with specific wavelength, frequency, and amplitude and mechanical waves need a medium through which they are transmitted. This model can explain many phenomena which include light and sound.
SC.MS.1.8.a Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in the wave.
SC.MS.2.2 Organisms reproduce, either sexually or asexually, and transfer their genetic information to their offspring.
SC.MS.2.2.a Use argument based on empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support an explanation for how characteristic animal behaviors and specialized plant structures affect the probability of successful reproduction of animals and plants respectively.
SC.MS.2.8 Heredity explains why offspring resemble, but are not identical to, their parents and is a unifying biological principle. Heredity refers to specific mechanisms by which characteristics or traits are passed from one generation to the next via genes.
SC.MS.2.8.a Develop and use a model to describe why structural changes to genes (mutations) located on chromosomes may affect proteins and may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism.
SC.MS.2.9 Fossils are mineral replacements, preserved remains, or traces of organisms that lived in the past.
SC.MS.2.9.a Analyze and interpret data for patterns in the fossil record that document the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of life forms throughout the history of life on Earth under the assumption that natural laws operate today as in the past.
SC.MS.2.9.b Apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for the anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms to infer evolutionary relationships.
SC.MS.2.9.c Analyze displays of pictorial data to compare patterns of similarities in the embryological development across multiple species to identify relationships not evident in the fully formed anatomy.
SC.MS.2.10 Genetic variations among individuals in a population give some individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing in their environment.
SC.MS.2.10.a Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals' probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment.
SC.MS.3.6 Water cycles among land, ocean, and atmosphere, and is propelled by sunlight and gravity. Density variations of sea water drive interconnected ocean currents. Water movement causes weathering and erosion, changing landscape features.
SC.MS.3.6.a Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth's surface at varying time and spatial scales.
SC.MS.3.7.b Develop and use a model to describe how unequal heating and rotation of the Earth cause patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates.
SC.MS.3.8 Humans depend on Earth's land, ocean, atmosphere, and biosphere for different resources, many of which are limited or not renewable. Resources are distributed unevenly around the planet as a result of past geologic processes.
SC.MS.3.8.a Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how the uneven distributions of Earth's mineral, energy, and groundwater resources are the result of past and current geoscience processes.
SC.MS.3.9 Mapping the history of natural hazards in a region and understanding related geological forces.
SC.MS.3.9.a Analyze and interpret data on natural hazards to forecast future catastrophic events and inform the development of technologies to mitigate their effects.