8SS1 Students understand the major events preceding the founding of the nation and relate their significance to the development of American Constitutional Democracy.
8SS1.a Examine the Revolutionary period in United States history including political differences between England and the American Colonies.
8SS1.b Analyze the philosophy of government expressed in the Declaration of Independence, with an emphasis on government as a means of securing individual rights.
8SS1.c Explain how the American Revolution affected other nations, especially France.
8SS1.d Interpret the nation's blend of civic republicanism, classical liberal principles, and English parliamentary traditions.
8SS2 Students analyze the political principles underlying the U.S. Constitution and compare the enumerated and implied powers of the federal government.
8SS2.a Appraise the significance of the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, and the Mayflower Compact.
8SS2.b Analyze the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution and the success of each in implementing the ideals of the Declaration of Independence.
8SS2.c Evaluate the major debates that occurred during the development of the Constitution and their ultimate resolutions in such areas as shared power among institutions, divided state-federal power, slavery, the rights of individuals and states (later addressed by the addition of the Bill of Rights), and the status of the American Indian Nations under the commerce clause.
8SS2.d Discuss the political philosophy underpinning the Constitution as specified in the Federalist Papers (authored by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay) and the role of such leaders as James Madison, George Washington, Roger Sherman, Gouverneur Morris, and James Wilson in the writing and ratification of the Constitution.
8SS2.e Understand the significance of Jefferson's Statute for Religious Freedom as a forerunner of the First Amendment and the origins, purpose, and differing views of the founding fathers on the issue of the separation of church and state in the First Amendment.
8SS2.f Enumerate the powers of government set forth in the Constitution and the fundamental liberties ensured by the Bill of Rights.
8SS2.g Describe the principles of federalism, dual sovereignty, separation of powers, checks and balances, the nature and purpose of majority rule, and discuss the ways in which the American ideal of constitutionalism preserves individual rights.
8SS3 Students understand the foundation of the American political system and demonstrate the ways in which citizens participate in it.
8SS3.a Analyze the principles and concepts codified in state constitutions between 1777 and 1781 that created the context out of which American political institutions and ideas developed.
8SS3.b Explain how the ordinances of 1785 and 1787 privatized national resources and transferred federally owned lands into private holdings, townships, and states.
8SS3.c Enumerate the advantages of common market among the states as foreseen in and protected by the Constitutions clauses on interstate commerce, common coinage, and full-faith and credit.
8SS3.d Recognize how the conflicts between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton resulted in the emergence of two political parties.
8SS3.e Relate the significance of domestic resistance movements and ways in which the central government responded to such movements.
8SS3.f Describe the basic law-making process and how the Constitution provides numerous opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process.
8SS3.g Discuss the function and responsibilities of a free press.
8SS4 Students analyze the aspirations, ideals and life of the people of the new nation.
8SS4.a Describe the country's physical landscapes, political divisions, and territorial expansion during the terms of the first four presidents.
8SS4.b Explain the policy significance of famous speeches.
8SS4.c Analyze the rise of capitalism and the economic problems and conflicts that accompanied it.
8SS4.d Describe daily life, including traditions in art, music, literature, of early America.
8SS4.e Discuss how changes in scientific and technological developments effected communication and changed the culture in the nineteenth-century.
8SS5 Students analyze U.S. foreign policy in the early Republic.
8SS5.a Enumerate the political and economic causes and consequences of the War of 1812, know the major battles, leaders, and events that led to a final peace.
8SS5.b Illustrate the changing boundaries of the United States and describe the relationships the country had with it's neighbors (Mexico and Canada) and Europe, including the influence of the Monroe Doctrine, and how those relationships influenced westward expansion and the Mexican-American War.
8SS5.c Compare the major treaties with American Indian nations during the administrations of the first four presidents and the varying outcomes of those treaties.
8SS6 Students analyze the divergent paths of the American people from 1800 to the mid-1800s and the challenges they faced, with emphasis on the Northeast.
8SS6.a Discuss the influence of industrialization and technological developments on the regions, including human modification of the landscape and how physical geography shaped human actions.
8SS6.b Outline the physical obstacles to and the economic and political factors involved in building a network of roads, canals, and railroads.
8SS6.c Explain the reasons for the wave of immigration from Northern Europe to the United States and describe the growth in the number, size, and spatial locations of cities.
8SS6.d Examine the lives of black Americans who gained freedom in the North and founded schools and churches to advance their right and communities.
8SS6.e Trace the development of the American education system from its earliest roots, including the roles of religious and private schools and Horace Mann's campaign for free public education and its assimilating role in American culture.
8SS6.f Examine the women's suffrage movement.
8SS6.g Identify common themes in American art as well as transcendentalism and individualism.
8SS7 Students analyze the divergent paths of the American people in the South from 1800 to the mid-1800s and the challenges they faced.
8SS7.a Describe the development of the agrarian economy in the South, identify the locations of the cotton-producing states, and illustrate the significance of cotton and the cotton gin.
8SS7.b Trace the origins and development of slavery; its effects on black Americans and on the region's political, social, religious, economic, and cultural development, and identify the strategies that were tried to both overturn and preserve it.
8SS7.c Examine the characteristics of white Southern society and explain how the physical environment influenced events and conditions prior to the Civil War.
8SS7.d Compare the lives of and opportunities for free blacks in the North with those of free blacks in the South.
8SS8 Students analyze the divergent paths of the American people in the West from 1800 to the mid-1800s and the challenges they faced.
8SS8.a Discuss the election of Andrew Jackson in 1828 and how his actions as President created the system of Jacksonian democracy.
8SS8.b Describe the purpose, challenges, and economic incentives associated with westward expansion, including the concept of Manifest Destiny.
8SS8.c Evaluate the role of pioneer women and the new status that western women achieved.
8SS8.d Examine the importance of the great rivers and the struggle over water rights.
8SS8.e Examine the consequences of the Texas War for Independence and the Mexican-American War including territorial settlements, the aftermath of the wars, and the effect the wars had on the lives of Americans, including Mexican Americans today.
8SS9 Students analyze the early and steady attempts to abolish slavery and to realize the ideals of the Declaration of Independence.
8SS9.a Compare and contrast the characteristics of the leaders of the abolitionist movement.
8SS9.b Recognize the abolition of slavery in early state constitutions.
8SS9.c Describe the significance of the Northwest Ordinance, the slavery issue as raised by the annexation of Texas, and the Compromise of 1850 in the banning of slavery in new states north of the Ohio River.
8SS9.d Compare and contrast the significance of the States' Rights Doctrine, the Missouri Compromise (1820), the Wilmot Proviso (1846), the Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854), the Dred Scott v. Sandford decision (1857), and the Lincoln-Douglas debates (1858).
8SS9.e Describe the lives of free blacks and the laws that limited their freedom and economic opportunities.
8SS10 Students analyze the multiple causes, key events, and complex consequences of the Civil War.
8SS10.a Compare the conflicting interpretations of state and federal authority as emphasized in the speeches and writings of statesmen such as Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun.
8SS10.b Trace the boundaries constituting the North and the South, the geographical differences between the two regions, and the differences between agrarians and industrialists.
8SS10.c Identify the constitutional issues posed by the doctrine of nullification and secession.
8SS10.d Analyze Abraham Lincoln's presidency and his significant writings and speeches and their relationship to the Declaration of Independence, such as his "House Divided" speech (1858), Gettysburg Address (1863), Emancipation Proclamation (1863), inaugural addresses (1861 and 1865).
8SS10.e Compare and contrast the views and lives of leaders.
8SS10.f Describe critical developments and events in the war, geographical advantages and obstacles, technological advances, and General Lee's surrender at Appomattox.
8SS10.g Explain how the war affected combatants, civilians, the physical environment, and future warfare.
8SS11 Students analyze the characteristics and lasting consequences of Reconstruction.
8SS11.a Examine the aims of Reconstruction and describe their effects on the political and social structures of different regions.
8SS11.b Identify the push-pull factors in the movement of former slaves to the cities in the North and to the West and their differing experiences in those regions.
8SS11.c Outline the effects of the Freedmen's bureau and the restrictions placed on the rights and opportunities of freedmen, including racial segregation and "Jim Crow" laws.
8SS11.d Trace the rise of the Ku Klux Klan and describe the Klan's effects.
8SS11.e Understand the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution and analyze their connection to Reconstruction.
8SS12 Students analyze the transformation of the American economy and the changing social political conditions following Reconstruction.
8SS12.a Trace patterns of agricultural and industrial development as they relate to climate, use of natural resources, markets, and trade and locate such development on a map.
8SS12.b Identify the reasons for the development of federal American Indian policy, the wars with American Indians, and their relationship to agricultural development and industrialization.
8SS12.c Explain how states and the federal government encouraged business expansion through tariffs, banking, land grants, and subsidies.
8SS12.d Compare and contrast entrepreneurs, industrialists, and bankers in politics, commerce, and industry.
8SS12.e Identify the significant inventors and their inventions and examine the impact of their contributions on quality of life.
8SSK The intellectual skills noted below are to be learned through, and applied to, the content standards for grade eight. They are to be assessed only in conjunction with these content standards. Students demonstrate the following intellectual reasoning, reflection, and research skills:
8SSK1 Students explain how major events are related to one another in time.
8SSK2 Students construct various time lines of key events, people, and periods of the historical era they are studying.
8SSK3 Students use a variety of maps and documents to identify physical and cultural features of neighborhoods, cities, states, and countries and to explain the historical migration of people, expansion and disintegration of empires, and the growth of economic system.
8SSK4 Students frame questions that can be answered by historical study and research.
8SSK5 Students distinguish fact from opinion in historical narratives and stories.
8SSK6 Students distinguish relevant from irrelevant information, essential from incidental information, and verifiable from unverifiable information in historical narratives and stories.
8SSK7 Students assess the credibility of primary and secondary sources and draw sound conclusion from them.
8SSK8 Students detect the different historical points of view on historical events and determine the context in which the historical statements were made (the questions asked, sources used, author's perspectives).
8SSK9 Students explain the central issues and problems from the past, placing people and events in a matrix of time and place.
8SSK10 Students understand and distinguish cause, effect, sequence, and correlation in historical events, including the long-and short-term causal relations.
8SSK11 Students explain the sources of historical continuity and how the combination of ideas and events explains the emergence of new patterns.
8SSK12 Students recognize the role of chance, oversight, and error in history.
8SSK13 Students recognize that interpretations of history are subject to change as new information is uncovered.
8SSK14 Students interpret basic indicators of economic performance and conduct cost-benefit analysis of economic and political issues.