14 Understand political systems, with an emphasis on the United States.
14.5.01 Identify the basic principles of American democracy expressed in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, the Bill of Rights and the Illinois State Constitution, including: freedom, individual rights and obligations of citizens, consent of the governed, the common good, and trial by jury.
14.5.05 Identify the role and responsibilities of local, state and federal branches of government, including: protection of individual rights, national, regional and local interests, immigration, and provision of services (e.g., law enforcement and public education).
14.5.09 Understand how one individual's rights in a democracy may at times be in conflict with one of another's individual rights; describe society's expectations for resolving these conflicts.
14.5.10 Identify the provisions of the Constitution that empower the government to form relationships with other countries, including: declaring war, making treaties, trade agreements, and conducting foreign policy.
14.5.11 Identify the expansion of U.S. territory from the American Revolution to the U.S. Civil War and identify the nations or groups from which the territory was acquired (e.g., Native American tribes, Mexico, and France) and ways in which territories were acquired (e.g., conquest, purchase, etc.).
14.5.15 Identify America's allies and adversaries during World War I, describe the aid given by the U.S. to its allies, and describe the possible benefits and consequences of forming alliances with other nations.
14.5.19 Define "cold war" and identify significant events of the Cold War, including: the Berlin Airlift, the Korean War, the Cuban Missile Crisis and the arms race, the Vietnam War, and the fall of the Berlin Wall.
14.5.20 Identify basic foreign policy strategies of the U.S. during the Cold War, and the formation of alliances (e.g., NATO), and Warsaw Pact.
14.5.21 Identify areas of U.S. foreign policy involvement since the end of the Cold War era.
14.5.22 Identify the significance of key American symbols, including national symbols (e.g., U.S. flag, bald eagle, Statue of Liberty, White House, U.S. Capitol, and Liberty Bell) and state symbols (e.g., state flag, motto, and location of state capital); demonstrate understanding of proper care and handling of the U.S. flag.
14.5.23 Know the songs and be able to identify the lyrics that express American ideals, including "The Star-Spangled Banner" (National Anthem); paraphrase and understand the meaning of the words in the Pledge of Allegiance.
14.5.24 Identify the significance of major U.S. holidays, including: Independence Day, President's Day, Veteran's Day, Memorial Day, and Martin Luther King Day.
15.5.15 Identify how entrepreneurs take risks in order to produce goods or services and make a return on an investment.
15.5.16 Understand the concept of barter and other exchanges that individuals make with and without money.
15.5.17 Identify government policies that protect property rights, enforce contracts, and discourage/encourage competition.
15.5.18 Understand how laws and government policies establish rules that help a market economy function efficiently (e.g., regulate banking, protect savings, and set rules for trade with other countries).
15.5.19 Identify governments as the providers of public goods and services (e.g., schools, roads, and fire protection).
15.5.24 Identify goods and services produced in Illinois.
15.5.25 Identify division of labor and interdependence in the Illinois economy.
15.5.26 Understand how decisions about education and careers reflect incomes in Illinois.
16 Understand events, trends, individuals and movements shaping the history of Illinois, the United States and other nations.
16.5.01 Understand and use common chronological terms and processes, including: Identifying the temporal structure of a historical narrative, including its beginning, middle and end (the latter defined as the outcome of a particular problem in the beginning); measuring and calculating calendar time by years, decades, centuries and millennia from fixed points of the Gregorian calendar system using B.C. and A.D.; constructing time lines by designating appropriate equidistant intervals of time and recording events according to the temporal order in which they occurred.
16.5.05 Identify the introduction of slavery into America, the harsh conditions of the middle passage, the responses of slave families, the struggles between proponents and opponents of slavery and the institutionalization of slavery.
16.5.06 Identify the social characteristics of the northern, middle, and southern colonies, and describe major individuals and groups associated with their founding, including: Pilgrims (under William Bradford) and Puritans (under John Winthrop) in the northern colonies; the English and Dutch (e.g., William Penn and Quakers, Peter Stuyvesant) in the middle colonies; the English in the southern colonies (e.g., John Smith and the settlement of Virginia).
16.5.11 Identify the people and events associated with the drafting and signing of the Declaration of Independence, including: Thomas Jefferson, King George III, Patrick Henry, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin and John Adams.
16.5.13 Understand that the debate at the Constitutional Convention can essentially be explained in terms of large states vs. small states: large states wanted the number of congressional representatives to be determined by the size of a state's population; small states wanted every state to have the same number of representatives; describe the 3/5 Compromise and the basic structure of government that resulted from the Convention.
16.5.14 Identify the first and second presidencies and identify the establishment of the national capitol in Washington, D.C.
16.5.16 Identify significant accomplishments of individuals, groups, or events and their impact on early westward expansion of the nation, including: the Lewis and Clark expedition, Daniel Boone, "mountain men," pioneers, and the Gold Rush.
16.5.17 Examine the main causes and outcomes of the War of 1812, including the concept of "freedom of the seas," James and Dolly Madison, the burning of the White House by the British, and the writing of "The Star-Spangled Banner."
16.5.18 Identify the presidency of Andrew Jackson and identify "spoils system," "kitchen cabinet," and "common. man."
16.5.19 Identify the basic causes and consequences of the Mexican War, including events that preceded the war (e.g., conflict over the Texas Territory and the Battle of the Alamo), border disputes between the U.S. and Mexico (including the location of the disputed territory); the Mexican Cession and the Gadsden Purchase.
16.5.20 Identify early western migration from the perspective of settlers and Native Americans.
16.5.21 Define "suffrage" and identify the contributions of individuals associated with the women's rights and suffrage movements (e.g., Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Margaret Fuller, Lucretia Mott, and Susan B. Anthony).
16.5.22 Define "abolition" and identify the contributions of individuals and groups associated with the abolitionist movement, including: Frederick Douglas, John Brown, and Harriet Tubman; describe the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 and explain the purpose of the Underground Railroad.
16.5.24 Identify the basic or primary causes of the U.S. Civil War, including: conflicting interpretations of state and federal authority and the geographical and economic differences between the North and South.
16.5.25 Identify Union and Confederate territories in the Civil War and describe the significance of events and individuals to the course of the war, including: battles of Fort Sumter, First Bull Run, and Gettysburg; Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, and Ulysses S. Grant; the Gettysburg Address, Emancipation Proclamation, and surrender at Appomattox.
16.5.28 Identify the end of the American West as illustrated by the relocation of Native Americans to reservations, Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull, and Custer's Last Stand; the Ghost Dance, the battle of Wounded Knee, "Buffalo Soldiers," and the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
16.5.29 Identify railroads, population growth, and natural resources as factors that helped the United States economy to grow faster than that of any other country in the late 19th century; describe conditions in America's farmlands and cities during the growth of the industrial age.
16.5.30 Identify the contributions and impact of notable industrialists to the growth of American business during the industrial age, including: Andrew Carnegie, Cornelius Vanderbilt, and John D. Rockefeller.
16.5.31 Identify life in the North and South in the late 19th century from the point of view of an African American.
16.5.32 Identify the reasons why many people came to America in the late 19th century (e.g., to find freedom and to seek a better life) and describe the discrimination, hardships, and new opportunities faced by many; explain the meaning of America as a "land of opportunity;" know the meaning of e pluribus unum ("out of many, one").
16.5.33 Identify the basic causes and consequences of the Spanish American War, including: the sinking of the U.S. battleship Maine, sensational U.S. newspaper stories; the acquisition of new territories in the Caribbean and Pacific; the growing importance of the U.S. as a world leader.
16.5.34 Identify the Progressive movement and the ways in which it sought to reform American society.
16.5.35 Identify the causes of World War I and the reasons for U.S. entry into the conflict; briefly describe the conflict, the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, and the League of Nations.
16.5.36 Identify events related to the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression, including: the failure of banks, unemployment, and the loss of farms due to the economy and disastrous drought.
16.5.38 Identify the causes, course, and effects of World War II, including: the rise of totalitarian governments in Germany, Italy, and Japan; the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the battles of Normandy and Stalingrad, the dropping of the atomic bombs on Japan.
16.5.41 Understand the origins and course of the Civil Rights movement, including the roles of individual American citizens in the civil rights movement, including: federal intervention in Little Rock, Ruby Bridges, Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King, Jackie Robinson, and the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
16.5.42 Identify sources of civilization in river valleys, including: Mesopotamia and the "Fertile Crescent" (Tigris and Euphrates Rivers), Egypt (Nile River), India (Indus and Ganges Rivers), and China (Huang Ho River).
16.5.43 Identify the political and cultural characteristics of ancient Egypt, including: the role of the Pharaoh as absolute ruler and head of Egyptian religion, the worship of many gods (polytheism), the building of pyramids as tombs for the afterlife, the importance of mummies in preserving the body for the afterlife, class distinctions of ancient Egypt (e.g., nobles, soldiers, freemen, peasants, and slaves), hieroglyphics as a writing system (deciphered in the 19th century using the Rosetta Stone).
16.5.44 Identify the development of alphabets and writing systems in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley.
16.5.45 Identify the common bonds (e.g., language and literature, religion, Olympic games, fear of Persia and alliances during the Persian Wars) and distinct differences (e.g., beliefs about government, views of literature, art, and philosophy, rivalries during the Peloponnesian Wars) between the ancient Greek city-states, with a focus on Athens and Sparta.
16.5.46 Understand the stories of the battles of Marathon and Thermopylae as examples of Greek ethical traditions and describe the connection to the modern-day marathon.
16.5.47 Identify basic contributions of ancient Greece to civilization in poetry, philosophy, literature, architecture, and mathematics.
16.5.48 Understand the scope of Alexander the Great's conquests to civilization (e.g., through his conquests, he created the largest empire then known; his empire allowed an exchange of ideas among peoples of the Mediterranean and the Middle East).
16.5.49 Identify people, places, and events in the history of ancient Rome: the early republic (including the strategic location of Italy in the Mediterranean region, and the roles of patricians, plebeians, and slaves), the Punic Wars against Hannibal of Carthage; the achievements and assassination of Julius Caesar; the destruction of Pompeii.
16.5.50 Identify aspects of daily life in ancient Rome, including the Coliseum, building of roads, aqueducts, Hadrian's Wall in England, the idea that "all roads lead to Rome," gladiator combat and the circuses, Roman baths, the Roman arch, and Roman gods and goddesses.
16.5.51 Understand that Christian beliefs are based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth; identify the basic teachings of Christianity.
16.5.52 Understand that Christianity developed from a forbidden belief to the state religion of the Roman Empire.
16.5.53 Define "dynasty;" identify the location and contributions of ancient Chinese civilization, including: cultivation of wheat, inventions of gunpowder, paper money, and the magnetic compass; understand the purpose of the Great Wall.
16.5.54 Identify Confucius as a philosopher who founded Confucianism, a code of ethical conduct for people to follow in their daily lives.
16.5.55 Identify contributions of Indian civilization to religion, philosophy, art and architecture, and literature.
16.5.56 Know the story of Gautama, a noble who rejected the Hindu caste system and believed that people can eliminate the suffering caused by desire by living righteously; known to history as Buddha (the "Enlightened One").
16.5.57 Identify the basic teachings of Hinduism.
16.5.58 Identify at least one significant Roman accomplishment in architecture, warfare, technology, engineering, and law.
16.5.59 Identify the ways that religious beliefs spread in the ancient world.
16.5.60 Identify basic political, social, and cultural causes of the decline of the Roman Empire.
16.5.61 Know that the Eastern Roman Empire preserved many of the ideas and traditions of the Roman Empire as the Byzantine Empire.
16.5.62 Identify the development and spread of Islam (e.g., Mohammad as the founder of Islam, the basic teachings of Islam as found in the Koran; Islamic contributions to civilization, and the basic location of Islamic kingdoms).
16.5.63 Identify churches and monasteries as places that preserved important ideas during and after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
16.5.64 Identify the location of Meso-American civilizations relative to European, Asian, and African civilizations.
16.5.65 Compare the basic characteristics of Japanese Feudal Society with that of European feudalism (e.g., the lord-vassal system and the roles of knights and samurais).
16.5.66 Identify feudalism as a political relationship between a lord and his vassal; describe the basic characteristics and functions of manorialism in European society.
16.5.67 Understand the basic causes and effects of the religious Crusades (e.g., how the Crusades contributed to increasing contact between Europeans and cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean world and helped introduce Islamic ideas to Europe).
16.5.68 Identify how the feudalism in Europe gradually gave way to more representative forms of government as illustrated in the principles of the Magna Carta.
16.5.69 Identify and locate Sub-Saharan Empires relative to the kingdoms of Europe, the Middle East, and Asia, and describe the exchange of goods (e.g., gold, slaves) and ideas (e.g., religious beliefs) among these kingdoms.
16.5.70 Understand the outbreak of bubonic plague ("The Black Death") that occurred in Europe in the 14th century, describe how it spread, and explain how the plague affected daily life in Europe.
16.5.71 Identify basic achievements and contributions of Mayan, Aztec, and Incan society (e.g., in astronomy, mathematics, the development of the calendar, government, trade, and architecture).
16.5.72 Identify voyages, routes, and the influence of cartography and advances in navigation during the Age of Exploration.
16.5.73 Identify the Renaissance and Scientific Revolution as a time of important advances in the arts and sciences in Europe and identify major artists, writers, and scientists of the time (e.g., Michelangelo, Leonardo Da Vinci, William Shakespeare, Galileo Galilei, and Isaac Newton).
16.5.74 Identify the basic features of the Reformation and the role of Martin Luther as a catalyst in the reformation of Christianity in Western Europe.
16.5.75 Identify how the Enlightenment contributed to the development of new ideas in government and economics.
16.5.76 Define "absolute monarchy" and "revolution" and identify the basic causes, events, and effects of the French Revolution.
16.5.77 Define "nationalism" and understand why European nations competed with each other for land and resources in the late 19th century.
16.5.78 Define "imperialism" and "colonialism" and identify examples of European and American colonies in the Americas, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East.
16.5.79 Identify the basic causes, course, and consequences of World War I on the nations and peoples of Europe, including: the countries involved, the role of nationalism and military alliances, the concept of "total war," the significance of the phrase, "War to end all wars."
16.5.80 Identify people, places, and events related to the establishment of the Soviet Union, including: Czar Nicholas II, Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, and Leon Trotsky; the economic and political conditions in Russia prior to the Revolution; the main goals of the Revolution.
16.5.81 Identify the basic causes of the Great Depression, its effects on daily life, and its impact around the world, particularly in Germany.
16.5.82 Define "totalitarianism" and identify common features of totalitarian states in Germany, Italy, and Japan.
16.5.83 Identify the basic causes, course, and consequences of World War II, including: allies and axis powers, major regions of conflict, and major turning points in the war (e.g., Normandy and the decision to drop atomic bombs on Japan).
16.5.85 Define "cold war;" explain the basic differences in the beliefs of the United States and the Soviet Union that led to the Cold War, and identify basic strategies used by each to counter the influence of the other.
16.5.86 Identify the basic features of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan.
16.5.87 Identify reasons why some nations since World War II have formed alliances and give examples of post-World War II alliances.
16.5.88 Identify the basic origins of revolutionary movements in Asia in the 20th century (e.g., China and Vietnam); identify places where nations have sought to achieve independence from colonial powers.
16.5.89 Identify the collapse of the Soviet Union.
16.5.90 Identify how people in hunting and gathering societies adapted to their respective environments.
16.5.91 Identify the similarities in the geographic conditions of the four river valley civilizations (Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, and China), including: fertile soil, uncertain rainfall, and disastrous floods.
16.5.92 Identify the environmental factors that drew settlers to Illinois and the surrounding region.
16.5.93 Identify the influence of individuals and events associated with the development of the conservation movement in the U.S., including: John Muir, Theodore Roosevelt and the creation of the U.S. National Park System.
16.5.94 Distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable resources.
16.5.95 Identify significant historical events and individuals in Illinois history, including: the Illini; French colonization; the French and Indian War; George Rogers Clark and the American Revolution; Jean-Baptist-Point DuSable and the origins of Chicago; the War of 1812 and the Massacre at Fort Dearborn; Erie Canal immigration; the Blackhawk War of 1832; the introduction of railroads; Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, and the Civil War; the founding of University of Illinois in 1867; the Great Chicago Fire of 1871; Cyrus McCormick; John Deere; Jane Addams' Hull House; the 1893 World's Fair; Illinois citizens see the world in World War I; Prohibition and crime in the Roaring 20s; Depression; Illinois industry and the atomic bomb in World War II; ; the Illinois experience with the civil rights movement; highway, rail, and air transportation in Illinois; the global economy; the development of Chicago as a major center for trade.
17 Understand world geography and the effects of geography on society, with an emphasis on the United States.
17.5.01 Use map and globe skills to compare the physical characteristics of places including soils, land forms, vegetation, wildlife, climate and natural hazards.
17.5.02 Use maps and other geographic representations and instruments to identify: the continents, the oceans, major American rivers and lakes, the 50 states and their capitals and major world capitals.
17.5.10 Understand how and why people alter the physical environment to meet their needs by: tree-cutting, mining and raising food.
17.5.11 Identify resources whose value has changed over time as technology has changed (e.g., coal).
17.5.12 Understand how the physical geography of a place can help or hinder the development of human settlement or civilization [e.g., natural boundaries (e.g., oceans, mountains or deserts); the presence or absence of water, fertile soil, rainfall, or flooding].
17.5.13 Interpret the geographic history of a place from a variety of sources, including: oral interviews, maps, photographs and public records.
17.5.14 Identify the historical, cultural, economic and geographic factors that led to the formation of distinct regional identities in the United States.
18.5.04 Compare and contrast the role of individual citizens and groups of citizens organized for a specific purpose.
18.5.05 Compare and contrast the needs of society and the wants and needs of individuals.
18.5.06 Identify the basic features of significant social movements and events from history, including: westward expansion before and after the Civil War and the significance of the words, "Go west, young man;" the abolitionist movement; the Civil Rights Movement before and since the Civil War; significant immigrations before and since the Civil War; the women's suffrage movement.
18.5.09 Examine an Illinois picture or story to identify the beliefs or ideals it conveys (e.g., pioneer, Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, the Chicago skyline, a Carl Sandburg poem, and Illinois sports and music).
18.5.10 Identify social groups active in local communities (e.g., churches, mosques, museums, community theaters, "friends of the park" organizations, etc.).