6-8.L.3 Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style in writing and speaking, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
6-8.L.3.a Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.
6-8.L.3.d Use verbs in the active and passive voice and in the conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects (e.g., emphasizing the actor or the action; expressing uncertainty or describing a state contrary to fact).
6-8.L.4 Use context clues, analyze meaningful word parts, and consult general and specialized reference materials as appropriate to determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases from grade level content.
6-8.L.4.a Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
6-8.L.4.b Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, audible in 6th grade; belligerent, bellicose, rebel in 7th grade; precede, recede, secede in 8th grade).
6-8.L.4.c Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses) to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
6-8.L.5.c Distinguish among the connotations of words with similar denotations (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, unwasteful, thrifty in 6th grade; refined, respectful, polite, diplomatic, condescending in 7th grade; bullheaded, willful, firm, persistent, resolute in 8th grade).
6-8.L.6 Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression.
6-8.L.6.a Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.