Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers.
8.NS.1 Know that numbers that are not rational are called irrational. Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion; for rational numbers show that the decimal expansion repeats eventually, and convert a decimal expansion which repeats eventually into a rational number.
8.NS.1.a Knowledge of differences between rational and irrational
8.NS.1.b Knowledge of definition and description of rational and irrational
8.NS.1.c Ability to identify and provide examples of rational versus irrational numbers, of the real number system
8.NS.2 Use rational approximations of irrational numbers to compare the size of irrational numbers, locate them approximately on a number line diagram, and estimate the value of expressions (e.g., π²).
8.NS.2.a Ability to round to the hundredths place
8.NS.2.b Ability to use a number line that specifies in tenths and hundredths the value between two whole numbers
8.NS.2.c Ability to use a number line that extends indefinitely, such as π
8.EE Expressions and Equations
Work with radicals and integer exponents.
8.EE.1 Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions.
8.EE.1.a Ability to recognize and apply the following properties of integer exponents:
8.EE.2 Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x² = p and x³ = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that √2 is irrational.
8.EE.2.a Ability to recognize and apply the following:
8.EE.4 Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g., use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology.
8.EE.6 Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y = mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b.
8.EE.6.a Ability to understand that similar right triangles (provide diagram of graphical notation) can be used to establish that slope is constant for a non-vertical line
8.EE.6.b Ability to graphically derive equations y = mx and y = mx + b
8.EE.6.c Ability to differentiate between zero slope and undefined slope
8.EE.6.d Ability to understand how the y-intercept translates a line along the y-axis (families of graphs)
Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations.
8.EE.7 Solve linear equations in one variable.
8.EE.7a Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers).
8.EE.7a.1 Ability to build on prior knowledge of solving linear equations
8.EE.8 Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations.
8.EE.8a Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously.
8.EE.8a.1 Ability to solve systems of equations numerically or by graphing
Use functions to model relationships between quantities.
8.F.4 Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values.
8.F.4.a Ability to calculate and interpret constant rate of change /slope from a scenario, table, graph, or two points
8.F.5 Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally.
8.F.5.a Ability to distinguish rate of change within an interval of a function
8.G.2 Understand that a two-dimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them.
8.G.2.a Ability to use a sequence of transformations and map one figure to a second figure to show congruency
8.G.3.b Ability to extend with algebraic rules of transformations
8.G.3.c Ability to write algebraic rules for transformations given an image and pre-image on coordinate plane, using multiple transformations
8.G.3.d Ability to discuss the difference between rigid and non-rigid transformations
8.G.4 Understand that a two-dimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar two-dimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them.
8.G.4.a Ability to use a sequence of transformations, and to map one figure to a second to show similarity
8.G.5 Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angle-angle criterion for similarity of triangles.
8.G.5.a Ability to use and apply facts that result from parallel lines cut by a transversal
Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data.
8.SP.1 Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association.
8.SP.1.a Ability to integrate technology and relate the scenarios to authentic student-centered situations
8.SP.1.b Ability to keep paired data organized in relation to one another within two sets of quantities
8.SP.2 Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line.
8.SP.2.a See the skills and knowledge that are stated in the Standard.
8.SP.3 Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and intercept.
8.SP.3.a Ability to integrate technology and to relate the scenarios to authentic student-centered situations
8.SP.4 Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a two-way table. Construct and interpret a two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible association between the two variables.
8.SP.4.a Ability to integrate technology and to relate the scenarios to authentic student-centered situations