H1 Evaluate evidence, compare and contrast information, interpret the historical record, and develop sound historical arguments and perspectives on which informed decisions in contemporary life can be based.
H1.1 Use historical conceptual devices to organize and study the past.
7 - H1.1.1 Explain why and how historians use eras and periods as constructs to organize and explain human activities over time.
7 - H1.1.2 Compare and contrast several different calendar systems used in the past and present and their cultural significance (e.g., Sun Dial, Gregorian calendar – B.C./A.D.; contemporary secular – B.C.E./C.E.; Chinese, Hebrew, and Islamic/Hijri calendars).
H1.2 Use historical inquiry and analysis to study the past.
7 - H1.2.1 Explain how historians use a variety of sources to explore the past (e.g., artifacts, primary and secondary sources including narratives, technology, historical maps, visual/mathematical quantitative data, radiocarbon dating, DNA analysis).
7 - H1.2.2 Read and comprehend a historical passage to identify basic factual knowledge and the literal meaning by indicating who was involved, what happened, where it happened, what events led to the development, and what consequences or outcomes followed.
7 - H1.4.2 Describe and use themes of history to study patterns of change and continuity.
7 - H1.4.3 Use historical perspectives to analyze global issues faced by humans long ago and today.
W1 WHG 1 Explain the basic features and differences between hunter-gatherer societies and pastoral nomads. Analyze and explain the geographic, environmental, biological, and cultural processes that influenced the rise of the earliest human communities, the migration and spread of people throughout the world, and the causes and consequences of the growth of agriculture.
W1.1 Describe the spread of people in the Western Hemisphere in Era 1.
7 - W1.1.1 Explain how and when human communities populated major regions of the Eastern Hemisphere (Africa, Australia, Europe, Asia) and adapted to a variety of environments.
W1.2 Describe the Agricultural Revolution and explain why it was a turning point in history.
7 - W1.2.1 Explain the importance of the natural environment in the development of agricultural settlements in different locations (e.g., available water for irrigation, adequate precipitation, and suitable growth season).
7 - W1.2.3 Compare and contrast the environmental, economic, and social institutions of two early civilizations from different world regions (e.g., Yangtse, Indus River Valley, Tigris/Euphrates, and Nile).
7 - W2.1.2 Use historical and modern maps and other sources to locate, describe, and analyze major river systems and discuss the ways these physical settings supported permanent settlements, and development of early civilizations (Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, Yangtze River, Nile River, Indus River).
7 - W2.1.3 Examine early civilizations to describe their common features (ways of governing, stable food supply, economic and social structures, use of resources and technology, division of labor and forms of communication).
W3 WHG 3 Analyze classical civilizations and empires and the emergence of major world religions and large-scale empires.
W3.1 Analyze classical civilizations and empires and their lasting impact on institutions, political thought, structures, technology and art forms that grew in India, China, the Mediterranean basin, Africa, and Southwest and Central Asia during this era.
7 - W3.1.1 Describe the characteristics that classical civilizations share (institutions, cultural styles, systems of thought that influenced neighboring peoples and have endured for several centuries).
7 - W3.1.2 Using historic and modern maps, locate three major empires of this era, describe their geographic characteristics including physical features and climates, and propose a generalization about the relationship between geographic characteristics and the development of early empires.
7 - W3.1.3 Compare and contrast the defining characteristics of a city-state, civilization, and empire.
7 - W3.1.4 Assess the importance of Greek ideas about democracy and citizenship in the development of Western political thought and institutions.
7 - W3.1.5 Describe major achievements from Indian, Chinese, Mediterranean, African, and Southwest and Central Asian civilizations in the areas of art, architecture and culture; science, technology and mathematics; political life and ideas; philosophy and ethical beliefs; and military strategy.
7 - W3.1.7 Use a case study to describe how trade integrated cultures and influenced the economy within empires (e.g., Assyrian and Persian trade networks or networks of Egypt and Nubia/Kush; or Phoenician and Greek networks).
7 - W3.1.8 Describe the role of state authority, military power, taxation systems, and institutions of coerced labor, including slavery, in building and maintaining empires (e.g., Han Empire, Mauryan Empire, Egypt, Greek city-states and the Roman Empire).
7 - W3.1.10 Create a time line that illustrates the rise and fall of classical empires during the classical period.
W3.2 Explain how world religions or belief systems of Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism and Islam grew and their significance. (Islam is included here even though it came after 300 C.E./A.D.)
7 - W3.2.1 Identify and describe the beliefs of the five major world religions.
G1 Study the relationships between people, places, and environments by using information that is in a geographic (spatial) context. Engage in mapping and analyzing the information to explain the patterns and relationships they reveal both between and among people, their cultures, and the natural environment. Identify and access information, evaluate it using criteria based on concepts and themes, and use geography in problem solving and decision making. Explain and use key conceptual devices (places and regions, spatial patterns and processes) that geographers use to organize information and inform their study of the world.
G1.1 Use maps and other geographic tools to acquire and process information from a spatial perspective.
7 - G1.1.1 Explain and use a variety of maps, globes, and web based geography technology to study the world, including global, interregional, regional, and local scales.
7 - G1.2.2 Explain why maps of the same place may vary as a result of the cultural or historical background of the cartographer.
7 - G1.2.3 Use observations from air photos, photographs (print and CD), films (VCR and DVD) as the basis for answering geographic questions about the human and physical characteristics of places and regions.
7 - G1.2.4 Draw the general population distribution of the Eastern Hemisphere on a map, analyze the patterns, and propose two generalizations about the location and density of the population.
7 - G1.2.5 Use information from modern technology such as Geographic Positioning System (GPS), Geographic Information System (GIS), and satellite remote sensing to locate information and process maps and data to analyze spatial patterns of the Eastern Hemisphere to answer geographic questions.
7 - G1.2.6 Apply the skills of geographic inquiry (asking geographic questions, acquiring geographic information, organizing geographic information, analyzing geographic information, and answering geographic questions) to analyze a problem or issue of importance to a region of the Eastern Hemisphere.
G1.3 Use geographic themes, knowledge about processes and concepts to study the Earth.
7 - G1.3.1 Use the fundamental themes of geography (location, place, human environment interaction, movement, region) to describe regions or places on earth.
7 - G1.3.2 Explain the locations and distributions of physical and human characteristics of Earth by using knowledge of spatial patterns.
7 - G1.3.3 Explain the different ways in which places are connected and how those connections demonstrate interdependence and accessibility.
G2 Describe the cultural groups and diversities among people that are rooted in particular places and in human constructs called regions. Analyze the physical and human characteristics of places and regions.
G2.1 Describe the physical characteristics of places.
7 - G2.1.1 Describe the landform features and the climate of the region (within the Western or Eastern Hemispheres) under study.
7 - G2.2.2 Explain that communities are affected positively or negatively by changes in technology (e.g., increased manufacturing resulting in rural to urban migration in China, increased farming of fish, hydroelectric power generation at Three Gorges, pollution resulting from increased manufacturing and automobiles).
7 - G2.2.3 Analyze how culture and experience influence people's perception of places and regions (e.g., that beaches are places where tourists travel, cities have historic buildings, northern places are cold, equatorial places are very warm).
G3 Describe the physical processes that shape the Earth's surface which, along with plants and animals, are the basis for both sustaining and modifying ecosystems. Identify and analyze the patterns and characteristics of the major ecosystems on Earth.
G3.1 Describe the physical processes that shape the patterns of the Earth's surface.
7 - G3.1.1 Construct and analyze climate graphs for locations at different latitudes and elevations in the region to answer geographic questions and make predictions based on patterns (e.g., compare and contrast Norway and France; Nairobi and Kilimanjaro; Mumbai and New Delhi).
G3.2 Describe the characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems on the Earth's surface.
7 - G3.2.1 Explain how and why ecosystems differ as a consequence of differences in latitude, elevation, and human activities (e.g., effects of latitude on types of vegetation in Africa, proximity to bodies of water in Europe, and effects of annual river flooding in Southeast Asia and China).
7 - G3.2.2 Identify ecosystems of a continent and explain why some provide greater opportunities (fertile soil, precipitation) for humans to use than do other ecosystems and how that changes with technology (e.g., China's humid east and arid west and the effects of irrigation technology).
G4 Explain that human activities may be seen on Earth's surface. Human systems include the way people divide the land, decide where to live, develop communities that are part of the larger cultural mosaic, and engage in the cultural diffusion of ideas and products within and among groups.
G4.1 Describe the characteristics, distribution and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaic.
7 - G4.1.1 Identify and explain examples of cultural diffusion within the Eastern Hemisphere (e.g., the spread of sports, music, architecture, television, Internet, Bantu languages in Africa, Islam in Western Europe).
7 - G4.1.2 Compare roles of women in traditional African societies in the past with roles of women as modern micro-entrepreneurs in current economies.
G4.2 Describe how technology creates patterns and networks that connect people, products and ideas.
7 - G4.2.1 List and describe the advantages and disadvantages of different technologies used to move people, products, and ideas throughout the world (e.g., opportunities for employment, entrepreneurial and educational opportunities using the Internet; the effects of technology on reducing the time necessary for communications and travel; the uses and effects of wireless technology in developing countries; and the spread of group and individual's ideas as voice and image messages on electronic networks such as the Internet).
G4.3 Describe patterns, processes and functions of human settlement.
7 - G4.3.1 Identify places in the Eastern Hemisphere that have been modified to be suitable for settlement by describing the modifications that were necessary (e.g., Nile River irrigation, reclamation of land along the North Sea, planting trees in areas that have become desertified in Africa).
7 - G4.3.2 Describe patterns of settlement by using historical and modern maps (e.g., the location of the world's mega cities, other cities located near coasts and navigable rivers, regions under environmental stress such as the Sahel).
G4.4 Explain how forces of conflict and cooperation among people influence the division and control of the Earth's surface.
7 - G4.4.1 Identify and explain factors that contribute to conflict and cooperation between and among cultural groups (e.g., natural resources, power, culture, wealth).
7 - G4.4.2 Describe examples of cooperation and conflict within the European Union (e.g., European Parliament, Euro as currency in some countries but not others, open migration within the European Union, free trade, and cultural impacts such as a multi-lingual population).
G5 Explain that the physical environment is modified by human activities, which are influenced by the ways in which human societies value and use Earth's natural resources, and by Earth's physical features and processes. Explain how human action modifies the physical environment and how physical systems affect human systems.
G5.1 Describe how human actions modify the environment.
7 - G5.1.1 Describe the environmental effects of human action on the atmosphere (air), biosphere (people, animals, and plants), lithosphere (soil), and hydrosphere (water) (e.g., desertification in the Sahel Region of North Africa, deforestation in the Congo Basin, air pollution in urban center, and chemical spills in European Rivers).
7 - G5.1.2 Describe how variations in technology affect human modifications of the landscape (e.g., clearing of agricultural land in Southeast Asia, fish factories in North Atlantic and Western Pacific Ocean, and damming rivers to meet needs for electricity).
7 - G5.1.3 Identify the ways in which human-induced changes in the physical environment in one place can cause changes in other places (e.g., cutting forests in one region may result in river basin flooding elsewhere as has happened historically in China; building dams floods land upstream and permits irrigation downstream as in Southern Africa, the Aswan Dam flooded the upper Nile Valley and permitted irrigation downstream).
G5.2 Describe how physical and human systems shape patterns on the Earth's surface.
7 - G5.2.1 Describe the effects that a change in the physical environment could have on human activities and the choices people would have to make in adjusting to the change (e.g., drought in Africa, pollution from volcanic eruptions in Indonesia, earthquakes in Turkey, and flooding in Bangladesh).
G6 Throughout the school year the students are introduced to topics that address global issues that integrate time and place. Included are capstone projects that entail the investigation of historical and contemporary global issues that have significance for the student and are clearly linked to the world outside the classroom. The topics and issues are developed as capstone projects within units and at the end of the course. Regular experiences with those topics and issues are necessary during each grade in order to build the background students will require to complete in-depth capstone projects.
G6.1 Capstone projects require the student to use geography, history, economics, and government to inquire about major contemporary and historical issues and events linked to the world outside the classroom. The core disciplines are used to interpret the past and plan for the future. During the school year the students will complete at least three capstone projects.
7 - G6.1.1 Conduct research on contemporary global topics and issues, compose persuasive essays, and develop a plan for action.
7 - G6.1.2 Conduct research on global topics and issues, compose persuasive essays, and develop a plan for action.
Civics and Government
C1 Analyze how people identify, organize, and accomplish the purposes of government.
C1.1 Describe civic life, politics and government and explain their relationships.
7 - C1.1.1 Explain how the purposes served by government affect relationships between the individual, government, and society as a whole and the differences that occur in monarchies, theocracies, dictatorships, and representative governments.
C3 Explain that governments are structured to serve the people. Describe the major activities of government, including making and enforcing laws, providing services and benefits to individuals and groups, assigning individual and collective responsibilities, generating revenue, and providing national security.
C3.6 Describe the characteristics of nation-states and how nation-states may interact.
7 - C3.6.1 Define the characteristics of a nation-state (a specific territory, clearly defined boundaries, citizens, and jurisdiction over people who reside there, laws, and government) and how Eastern Hemisphere nations interact.
C4 Explain that nations interact with one another through trade, diplomacy, treaties and agreements, humanitarian aid, economic sanctions and incentives, and military force and threat of force.
C4.3 Explain the various ways that nations interact both positively and negatively.
7 - C4.3.1 Explain how governments address national issues and form policies, and how the policies may not be consistent with those of other countries (e.g., population pressures in China compared to Sweden; international immigration quotas, international aid, energy needs for natural gas and oil and military aid).
7 - C4.3.2 Explain the challenges to governments and the cooperation needed to address international issues (e.g., migration and human rights).
7 - C4.3.3 Explain why governments belong to different types of international and regional organizations (e.g., United Nations (UN), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), European Union (EU), and African Union (AU), G-8 countries (leading economic/political)).
E1 Describe the market economy in terms of the relevance of limited resources, how individuals and institutions make and evaluate decisions, the role of incentives, how buyers and sellers interact to create markets, how markets allocate resources, and the economic role of government in a market economy.
E1.1 Describe how individuals, businesses, and governments make economic decisions when confronting scarcity in the market economy.
7 - E1.1.1 Explain the role of incentives in different economic systems (acquiring money, profit, goods, wanting to avoid loss, position in society, job placement).
7 - E1.1.2 Describe the circular flow model (that businesses get money from households in exchange for goods and services and return that money to households by paying for the factors of production that households have to sell) and apply it to a public service (e.g., education, health care, military protection).
E2 Use economic concepts, terminology, and data to identify and describe how a national economy functions. They study the role of government as a provider of goods and services within a national economy.
E2.3 Describe how national governments make decisions that affect the national economy.
7 - E2.3.1 Explain how national governments make decisions that impact both that country and other countries that use its resources (e.g., sanctions and tariffs enacted by a national government to prevent imports, most favored trade agreements, the impact China is having on the global economy and the U.S. economy in particular).
E3 Analyze reasons for individuals and businesses to specialize and trade, why individuals and businesses trade across international borders, and the comparisons of the benefits and costs of specialization and the resulting trade for consumers, producers, and governments.
E3.1 Describe patterns and networks of economic interdependence, including trade.
7 - E3.1.1 Explain the importance of trade (imports and exports) on national economies in the Eastern Hemisphere (e.g., natural gas in North Africa, petroleum Africa, mineral resources in Asia).
7 - E3.1.2 Diagram or map the movement of a consumer product from where it is manufactured to where it is sold to demonstrate the flow of materials, labor, and capital (e.g., global supply chain for computers, athletic shoes, and clothing).
7 - E3.1.3 Determine the impact of trade on a region of the Eastern Hemisphere by graphing and analyzing the gross Domestic Product of the region for the past decade and comparing the data with trend data on the total value of imports and exports over the same period.
7 - E3.1.4 Explain how communications innovations have affected economic interactions and where and how people work (e.g., internet home offices, international work teams, international companies).
E3.3 Describe how societies organize to allocate resources to produce and distribute goods and services.
7 - E3.3.1 Explain and compare how economic systems (traditional, command, and market) answer four basic questions: What should be produced? How will it be produced? How will it be distributed? Who will receive the benefits of production? (e.g., market economies in Africa, Europe; command economy in North Korea; and the transition to market economies in Vietnam and China).
Public Discourse, Decision Making, and Citizen Involvement
P3.1 Identifying and Analyzing Issues, Decision Making, Persuasive Communication About a Public Issue, and Citizen Involvement.
7 - P3.1.1 Clearly state an issue as a question or public policy, trace the origins of an issue, analyze and synthesize various perspectives, and generate and evaluate alternative resolutions. Deeply examine policy issues in group discussions and debates to make reasoned and informed decisions. Write persuasive/argumentative essays expressing and justifying decisions on public policy issues. Plan and conduct activities intended to advance views on matters of public policy, report the results, and evaluate effectiveness.
Identify public policy issues related to global topics and issues studied.
Clearly state the issue as a question of public policy orally or in written form.
Use inquiry methods to acquire content knowledge and appropriate data about the issue.
Identify the causes and consequences and analyze the impact, both positive and negative.
Share and discuss findings of research and issue analysis in group discussions and debates.
Compose a persuasive essay justifying the position with a reasoned argument.
Develop an action plan to address or inform others about the issue at the local to global scales.
P4.2 Act constructively to further the public good.
7 - P4.2.1 Demonstrate knowledge of how, when, and where individuals would plan and conduct activities intended to advance views in matters of public policy, report the results, and evaluate effectiveness.
7 - P4.2.2 Engage in activities intended to contribute to solving a national or international problem studied.
7 - P4.2.3 Participate in projects to help or inform others (e.g., service learning projects).