8-F Foundations in U.S. History and Geography Eras 1-2
8-F1 Political and Intellectual Transformations
8-F1.1 Describe the ideas, experiences, and interactions that influenced the colonists' decisions to declare independence by analyzing: colonial ideas about government and experiences with self-government.
8-F1.2 Using the Declaration of Independence, including the grievances at the end of the document, describe the role this document played in expressing: colonists' views of government and their reasons for separating from Great Britain.
8-F1.3 Describe the consequences of the American Revolution by analyzing and evaluating the relative influences of: establishment of an independent republican government; creation of the Articles of Confederation; changing views on freedom and equality; and concerns over the distribution of power within government, between government and the governed, and among people.
8-U3.3 Creating New Government(s) and a New Constitution: Explain the challenges faced by the new nation and analyze the development of the Constitution as a new plan for governing (Foundations for Civics HSCE Standard 2.1).
8-U3.3.1 Explain the reasons for the adoption and subsequent failure of the Articles of Confederation.
8-U3.3.3 Describe the major issues debated at the Constitutional Convention, including the distribution of political power among the states and within the federal government, the conduct of foreign affairs, commerce with tribes, rights of individuals, the election of the executive, and the enslavement of Africans as a regional and federal issue.
8-U3.3.4 Explain how the new Constitution resolved (or compromised) the major issues, including sharing and separation of power and checking of power among federal government institutions; dual sovereignty (state-federal power); rights of individuals; the Electoral College; the Three-Fifths Compromise; the Great Compromise; and relationships and affairs with tribal nations.
8-U3.3.7 Use important ideas and documents to describe the philosophical origins of constitutional government in the United States with an emphasis on the following ideals: social contract, limited government, natural rights, right of revolution, separation of powers, bicameralism, republicanism, and popular participation in government.
8-U4.2 Regional and Economic Growth: Describe and analyze the nature and impact of territorial, demographic, and economic growth in the first three decades of the new nation, using maps, charts, and other evidence.
8-U4.2.1 Comparing the Northeast and the South – compare and contrast the social and economic systems of the Northeast, the South, and the Western Frontier (Kentucky, Ohio Valley, etc.) with respect to geography, climate, and the development of: agriculture, including changes in productivity, technology, supply and demand, and price; industry, including the entrepreneurial development of new industries, such as textiles; the labor force, including labor incentives and changes in labor forces; transportation, including changes in transportation (steamboats and canal barges) and the impact on economic markets and prices; immigration and the growth of nativism; race relations; and class relations.
8-U4.2.3 Westward Expansion – analyze the annexation of the west through the Louisiana Purchase, the removal of Indigenous Peoples from their ancestral homelands, the Mexican-American War, the growth of a system of commercial agriculture, and the idea of Manifest Destiny.
8-U4.2.4 Consequences of Expansion – develop an argument based on evidence about the positive and negative consequences of territorial and economic expansion on Indigenous Peoples, efforts to maintain and sustain the institution of slavery, and the relations between free and slave-holding states.
8-U4.3.2 Describe the formation and development of the abolitionist movement by considering the roles of key abolitionist leaders and the response of southerners and northerners to the abolitionist movement.
8-U5.1.4 Draw conclusions about why the following increased sectional tensions: the Missouri Compromise (1820); the Wilmot Proviso (1846); the Compromise of 1850, including the Fugitive Slave Act; the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) and subsequent conflict in Kansas; the Dred Scott v. Sandford decision (1857); and changes in the party system.
8-U5.1.6 Describe how major issues debated at the Constitutional Convention, such as disagreements over the distribution of political power, rights of individuals (liberty and property), rights of states, the election of the executive, and slavery, help explain the Civil War.
8-U5.2.2 Make an argument to explain the reasons why the North won the Civil War by considering the following: critical events and battles in the war; the political and military leadership of the North and South; respective advantages and disadvantages of each side, including geographic, demographic, economic, and technological.
8-U5.2.3 Examine Abraham Lincoln's presidency with respect to: his military and political leadership; the evolution of his emancipation policy (including the Emancipation Proclamation); the role of his significant writings and speeches, including the Gettysburg Address and its relationship to the Declaration of Independence.
8-U5.2.5 Construct generalizations about how the war affected combatants, civilians (including the role of women and Indigenous Peoples), the physical environment, and the future of warfare, including technological developments.
8-U5.3 Reconstruction: Using evidence, develop an argument regarding the character and consequences of Reconstruction.
8-U5.3.1 Compare the different positions concerning the reconstruction of Southern society and the nation, including the positions of President Abraham Lincoln, President Andrew Johnson, Republicans, Democrats, and African-Americans.
8-U5.3.2 Describe the early responses to the end of the Civil War by describing: the policies of the Freedmen's Bureau and the restrictions placed on the rights and opportunities of freedmen, including racial segregation and Black Codes.
8-U5.3.3 Describe the new role of African-Americans in local, state, and federal government in the years after the Civil War and the national and regional resistance to this change, including the Ku Klux Klan.
8-U6 USHG Era 6 – The Development of an Industrial, Urban, and Global United States (1870-1930)
8-U6.1 America in the Last Half of the 19th Century: Analyze the major changes in communication, transportation, demography, and urban centers, including the location and growth of cities linked by industry and trade, in the last half of the 19th century. The purpose of this section is to introduce some of the major changes in American society and the economy in the last part of the 19th century. This era will be addressed in depth and with greater intellectual sophistication in the high school U.S. History and Geography content expectations.
8-U6.1.1 America at Century's End – compare and contrast the United States in 1800 with the United States in 1898, focusing on similarities and differences in: territory; population; systems of transportation; governmental policies promoting economic development; economic change; the treatment of African-Americans; and the policies toward Indigenous Peoples.
8-U6.2 Investigation Topics and Issue Analysis (P2): Use the historical perspective to investigate a significant historical topic from U.S. History Eras 3-6 that also has significance as an issue or topic in the United States today.
8-U6.2.1 U.S. History Investigation Topic and Issue Analysis, Past and Present – use historical perspectives to analyze issues in the United States from the past and the present; conduct research on a historical issue or topic, identify a connection to a contemporary issue, and present findings (e.g., oral, visual, video, or electronic presentation, persuasive essay, or research paper); include causes and consequences of the historical action and predict possible consequences of the contemporary action.
8-P Process and Skills Standards
8-P1 Reading and Communication - Read and Communicate Effectively
8-P1.1 Use appropriate strategies to read and interpret basic social science tables, graphs, graphics, maps, and texts.
8-P3.1 Identifying and Analyzing Issues, Decision Making, Persuasive Communication About a Public Issue, and Civic Participation.
Skills covering this topic are not currently available on IXL.
8-P4 Civic Participation
8-P4.2 Act constructively to further the public good.
8-P4.2.1 Demonstrate knowledge of how, when, and where individuals would plan and conduct activities intended to advance views in matters of public policy, report the results, and evaluate effectiveness.
8-P4.2.2 Engage in activities intended to contribute to solving a national or international problem studied.