PS2.B.1 Plan and conduct a fair test to compare and contrast the forces (measured by a spring scale in Newtons) required to overcome friction when an object moves over different surfaces (i.e., rough/smooth).
PS2.B.2 Predict how changes in either the amount of force applied to an object or the mass of the object affects the motion (speed and direction) of the object.
PS3.A Definitions of Energy
PS3.A.1 Use evidence to construct an explanation relating the speed of an object to the energy of that object.
PS3.B Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
PS3.B.1 Provide evidence to construct an explanation of an energy transformation (e.g. temperature change, light, sound, motion, and magnetic effects)
PS3.B.2 Apply scientific ideas to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another.
PS3.C Relationship Between Energy and Forces
PS3.C.1 Use models to explain that simple machines change the amount of effort force and/or direction of force.
PS3.D Energy in Chemical Process and Everyday
PS4 Waves and Their Applications in technologies for Information Transfer
PS4.A Wave Properties
PS4.A.1 Develop a model of waves to describe patterns in terms of amplitude or wavelength and that waves can cause objects to move. (Boundary: The terms amplitude and wavelength should not be assessed.)
PS4.B Electromagnetic Radiation
PS4.C Information Technologies and Instrumentation
LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structure and Processes
LS1.A Structure and Function
LS1.A.1 Construct an argument that plants and animals have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and plant reproduction.
Examples of evidence from patterns could include rock layers with marine shell fossils above rock layers with plant fossils and no shells, indicating a change from land to water over time; and, a canyon with different rock layers in the walls and a river in the bottom, indicating that over time a river cut through the rock.
ESS2 Earth's Systems
ESS2.A Earth Materials and Systems
ESS2.A.1 Plan and conduct scientific investigations or simulations to provide evidence how natural processes (e.g. weathering and erosion) shape Earth's surfaces.