Emphasis is on developing evidence that living things are made of cells, distinguishing between living and non-living things, and understanding that living things may be made of one cell or many and varied cells.
6-8-LS1-2 Develop and use a model to describe the function of a cell as a whole and ways parts of the cells contribute to that function.
Emphasis is on the cell functioning as a whole system and the primary role of identified parts of the cell, specifically the nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, cell membrane, and cell wall.
6-8-LS1-3 Develop an argument supported by evidence for how multicellular organisms are organized by varying levels of complexity; cells, tissue, organs, organ systems.
6-8-LS1-4 Present evidence that body systems interact to carry out key body functions, including providing nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing carbon dioxide and waste from cells and the body, controlling body motion/activity and coordination, and protecting the body.
Examples of animal behaviors that affect the probability of animal reproduction could include nest building to protect young from cold, herding of animals to protect young from predators, and vocalization of animals and colorful plumage to attract mates for breeding. Examples of animal behaviors that affect the probability of plant reproduction could include transferring pollen or seeds; and, creating conditions for seed germination and growth. Examples of plant structures that affect the probability of plant reproduction could include bright flowers attracting butterflies that transfer pollen, flower nectar and odors that attract insects that transfer pollen, and hard shells on nuts that squirrels bury.
6-8-LS1-6 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how environmental and genetic factors influence the growth of organisms.
Examples of local environmental conditions could include availability of food, light, space, and water. Examples of genetic factors could include large breed cattle and species of grass affecting growth of organisms. Examples of evidence could include drought decreasing plant growth, fertilizer increasing plant growth, different varieties of plant seeds growing at different rates in different conditions, and fish growing larger in large ponds than they do in small ponds.
6-8-LS1.C Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms
6-8-LS1-7 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of matter and flow of energy into and out of organisms.
6-8-LS1.D Information Processing
6-8-LS2 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
6-8-LS2.A Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems
6-8-LS2-1 Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on individual organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem.
Emphasis is on cause and effect relationships between resources and growth of individual organisms and the numbers of organisms in ecosystems during periods of abundant and scarce resources.
6-8-LS2-2 Construct an explanation that predicts the patterns of interactions among and between the biotic and abiotic factors in a given ecosystem.
Emphasis is on recognizing patterns in data and making inferences about changes in populations, defining the boundaries of the system, and on evaluating empirical evidence supporting arguments about changes to ecosystems.
M-LS2-5 Evaluate benefits and limitations of differing design solutions for maintaining an ecosystem.
Examples of design solutions could include water, land, and species protection, and the prevention of soil erosion. Examples of design solution constraints could include scientific, economic, and social considerations.
6-8-LS2.D Social Interactions and Group Behavior
6-8-LS3 Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
6-8-LS3.A Inheritance of Traits
6-8-LS3.B Variation of Traits
6-8-LS4 Biological Evolution; Unity and Diversity
6-8-LS4.A Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity
6-8-LS4-1 Analyze and interpret evidence from the fossil record to infer patterns of environmental change resulting in extinction and changes to life forms throughout the history of the Earth.
Examples of evidence include sets of fossils that indicate an environment, anatomical structures that indicate the function of an organism in the environment, and fossilized tracks that indicate behavior of organisms.
6-8-LS4.B Natural Selection
6-8-LS4-2 Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals' probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment.
Emphasis is on using simple probability statements and proportional reasoning to construct explanations.
6-8-LS4-3 Gather and synthesize information about the technologies that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms.
Emphasis is on synthesizing information from reliable sources about the influence of humans on genetic outcomes in artificial selection (such as genetic modification, animal husbandry, and farming practices).
6-8-LS4-4 Interpret graphical representations to support explanations of how natural selection may lead to increases and decreases of specific traits in populations over time.