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Skills available for Missouri fourth-grade science standards

Standards are in black and IXL science skills are in dark green. Hold your mouse over the name of a skill to view a sample question. Click on the name of a skill to practice that skill.

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1 Properties and Principles of Matter and Energy

  • 1 Changes in properties and states of matter provide evidence of the atomic theory of matter

    • A Objects, and the materials they are made of, have properties that can be used to describe and classify them

      • a Describe and compare the masses (the amount of matter in an object) of objects to the nearest gram using balances

      • b Describe and compare the volumes (the amount of space an object occupies) of objects using a graduated cylinder

      • c Identify situations where no two objects can occupy the same space at the same time (e.g. water level rises when an object or substance such as a rock is placed in a quantity of water)

      • d Classify types of materials (e.g., water, salt, sugar, iron filings, salt water) into "like" substances (materials that have specific physical properties) or mixtures of substances by using their characteristic properties

    • B Properties of mixtures depend upon the concentrations, properties, and interactions of particles

      • a Identify water as a solvent that dissolves materials (Do NOT assess the term solvent)

      • b Observe and describe how mixtures are made by combining solids or liquids, or a combination of these

      • c Distinguish between the components in a mixture/solution (e.g., trail mix, conglomerate rock, salad, soil, salt water)

      • d Describe ways to separate the components of a mixture/solution by their properties (i.e., sorting, filtration, magnets, screening)

    • C Properties of matter can be explained in terms of moving particles too small to be seen without tremendous magnification

    • D Physical changes in the state of matter that result from thermal changes can be explained by the Kinetic Theory of Matter

    • E The atomic model describes the electrically neutral atom

    • F The periodic table organizes the elements according to their atomic structure and chemical reactivity

    • G Properties of objects and states of matter can change chemically and/or physically

    • H Chemical bonding is the combining of different pure substances (elements, compounds) to form new substances with different properties

    • I Mass is conserved during any physical or chemical change

      • a Observe that the total mass of a material remains constant whether it is together, in parts, or in a different state

  • 2 Energy has a source, can be stored, and can be transferred but is conserved within a system

    • A Forms of energy have a source, a means of transfer (work and heat), and a receiver

      • a Construct and diagram a complete electric circuit by using a source (e.g., battery), means of transfer (e.g., wires), and receiver (e.g., resistance bulbs, motors, fans)

      • b Observe and describe the evidence of energy transfer in a closed series circuit (e.g., lit bulb, moving motor, fan)

      • c Classify materials as conductors or insulators of electricity when placed within a circuit (e.g., wood, pencil lead, plastic, glass, aluminum foil, lemon juice, air, water)

    • B Mechanical energy comes from the motion (kinetic energy) and/or relative position (potential energy) of an object

    • C Electromagnetic energy from the Sun (solar radiation) is a major source of energy on Earth

    • D Chemical reactions involve changes in the bonding of atoms with the release or absorption of energy

    • E Nuclear energy is a major source of energy throughout the universe

    • F Energy can be transferred within a system as the total amount of energy remains constant (i.e., Law of Conservation of Energy)

      • a Identify the evidence of energy transformations (temperature change, light, sound, motion, and magnetic effects) that occur in electrical circuits

2 Properties and Principles of Force and Motion

  • 1 The motion of an object is described by its change in position relative to another object or point

    • A The motion of an object is described as a change in position, direction, and speed relative to another object (frame of reference)

      • a Classify different types of motion [straight line, curved, vibrating (back and forth)]

      • b Describe an object's motion in terms of distance and time

    • B An object that is accelerating is speeding up, slowing down, or changing direction

    • C Magnetic forces are related to electrical forces as different aspects of a single electromagnetic force

  • 2 Forces affect motion

    • A Forces are classified as either contact (pushes, pulls, friction, buoyancy) or non-contact forces (gravity, magnetism), that can be described in terms of direction and magnitude

      • a Identify the forces acting on the motion of objects traveling in a straight line (specify that forces should be acting in the same line as the motion, provide examples)

      • b Describe and compare forces (measured by a spring scale in Newton's) applied to objects in a single line

      • c Observe and identify friction as a force that slows down or stops a moving object that is touching another object or surface

      • d Compare the forces (measured by a spring scale in Newton's) required to overcome friction when an object moves over different surfaces (i.e., rough/smooth)

    • B Every object exerts a gravitational force on every other object

      • a Determine the gravitational pull of the Earth on an object (weight) using a spring scale

    • C Magnetic forces are related to electrical forces as different aspects of a single electromagnetic force

    • D Newton's Laws of Motion explain the interaction of mass and forces, and are used to predict changes in motion

      • a Observe that balanced forces do not affect an object's motion (need to clarify that balanced forces means no change in forces acting on an object)

      • b Describe how unbalanced forces acting on an object changes its speed (faster/slower), direction of motion, or both (need to clarify that unbalanced forces means any change in forces acting on an object)

      • c Predict how the change in speed of an object (i.e., faster/slower/remains the same) is affected by the amount of force applied to an object and the mass of the object

      • d Predict the effects of an electrostatic force (static electricity) on the motion of objects (attract or repel)

    • E Perpendicular forces act independently of each other

    • F Work transfers energy into and out of a mechanical system

3 Characteristics and Interactions of Living Organisms

  • 1 There is a fundamental unity underlying the diversity of all living organisms

    • A Organisms have basic needs for survival

    • B Organisms progress through life cycles unique to different types of organisms

    • C Cells are the fundamental units of structure and function of all living things

    • D Plants and animals have different structures that serve similar functions necessary for the survival of the organism

    • E Biological classifications are based on how organisms are related

  • 2 Living organisms carry out life processes in order to survive

    • A The cell contains a set of structures called organelles that interact to carry out life processes through physical and chemical means

    • B All living organisms have genetic material (DNA) that carries hereditary information

    • C Complex multicellular organisms have systems that interact to carry out life processes through physical and chemical means

    • D Cells carry out chemical transformations that use energy for the synthesis or breakdown of organic compounds

    • E Protein structure and function are coded by the DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) molecule

    • F Cellular activities and responses can maintain stability internally while external conditions are changing (homeostasis)

    • G Life processes can be disrupted by disease (intrinsic failures of the organ systems or by infection due to other organisms)

  • 3 There is a genetic basis for the transfer of biological characteristics from one generation to the next through productive processes

    • A Reproduction can occur asexually or sexually

    • B All living organisms have genetic material (DNA) that carries hereditary information

    • C Chromosomes are components of cells that occur in pairs and carry hereditary information from one cell to daughter cells and from parent to offspring during reproduction

    • D There is heritable variation within every species of organism

    • E The pattern of inheritance for many traits can be predicted by using the principles of Mendelian genetics

4 Changes in Ecosystems and Interactions of Organisms with their Environments

  • 1 Organisms are interdependent with one another and with their environment

  • 2 Matter and energy flow through an ecosystem

    • A As energy flows through the ecosystem, all organisms capture a portion of that energy and transform it to a form they can use

      • a Classify populations of organisms as producers and consumers by the role they serve in the ecosystem

      • b Differentiate between the types of consumers (herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, detrivore/decomposer)

      • c Categorize organisms as predator or prey in a given ecosystem

    • B Matter is recycled through an ecosystem

  • 3 Genetic variation sorted by the natural selection process explains evidence of biological evolution

    • A Evidence for the nature and rates of evolution can be found in anatomical and molecular characteristics of organisms and in the fossil record

    • B Reproduction is essential to the continuation of every species

    • C Natural selection is the process of sorting individuals based on their ability to survive and reproduce within their ecosystem

      • a Identify specialized structures and describe how they help plants survive in their environment (e.g., root, cactus needles, thorns, winged seed, waxy leaves)

      • b Identify specialized structures and senses and describe how they help animals survive in their environment (e.g., antennae, body covering, teeth, beaks, whiskers, appendages)

      • c Identify internal cues (e.g., hunger) and external cues (e.g., changes in the environment) that cause organisms to behave in certain ways (e.g., hunting, migration, hibernation)

      • d Predict which plant or animal will be able to survive in a specific environment based on its special structures or behaviors

5 Processes and Interactions of the Earth's Systems

  • 1 Earth's systems (geosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) have common components and unique structures

    • A The Earth's crust is composed of various materials, including soil, minerals, and rocks, with characteristic properties

    • B The hydrosphere is composed of water (a material with unique properties) and other materials

    • C The atmosphere (air) is composed of a mixture of gases, including water vapor, and minute particles

    • D Climate is a description of average weather conditions in a given area over time

  • 2 Earth's systems (geosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) interact with one another as they undergo change by common processes

    • A The Earth's materials and surface features are changed through a variety of external processes

    • B There are internal processes and sources of energy within the geosphere that cause changes in Earth's crustal plates

    • C Continual changes in Earth's materials and surface that result from internal and external processes are described by the rock cycle

    • D Changes in the Earth over time can be inferred through rock and fossil evidence

    • E Changes in the form of water as it moves through Earth's systems are described as the water cycle

    • F Climate is a description of average weather conditions in a given area due to the transfer of energy and matter through Earth's systems

  • 3 Human activity is dependent upon and affects Earth's resources and systems

    • A Earth's materials are limited natural resources affected by human activity

      • a Identify the ways humans affect the erosion and deposition of Earth's materials (e.g., clearing of land, planting vegetation, paving land construction of new buildings)

      • b Propose ways to solve simple environmental problems (e.g., recycling, composting, ways to decrease soil erosion) that result from human activity

6 Composition and Structure of the Universe and the Motion of the Objects Within It

  • 1 The universe has observable properties and structure

    • A The Earth, Sun, and Moon are part of a larger system that includes other planets and smaller celestial bodies

    • B The Earth has a composition and location suitable to sustain life

    • C Most of the information we know about the universe comes from the electromagnetic spectrum

  • 2 Regular and predictable motions of objects in the universe can be described and explained as the result of gravitational forces

    • A The apparent position of the Sun and other stars, as seen from Earth, change in observable patterns

    • B The apparent position of the moon, as seen from Earth, and its actual position relative to Earth change in observable patterns

    • C The regular and predictable motions of the Earth and Moon relative to the Sun explain natural phenomena on Earth, such as day, month, year, shadows, moon phases, eclipses, tides, and seasons

    • D Gravity is a force of attraction between objects in the solar system that governs their motion

7 Scientific Inquiry

8 Impact of Science, Technology and Human Activity

  • 1 The nature of technology can advance, and is advanced by, science as it seeks to apply scientific knowledge in ways that meet human needs

    • A Designed objects are used to do things better or more easily and to do some things that could not otherwise be done at all

      • a Design and construct an electrical device, using materials and/or existing objects, that can be used to perform a task

    • B Advances in technology often result in improved data collection and an increase in scientific information

      • a Describe how new technologies have helped scientists make better observations and measurements for investigations (e.g., telescopes, magnifiers, balances, microscopes, computers, stethoscopes, thermometers)

    • C Technological solutions to problems often have drawbacks as well as benefits

      • a Identify how the effects of inventions or technological advances (e.g., different types of light bulbs, semiconductors/integrated circuits and electronics, satellite imagery, robotics, communication, transportation, generation of energy, renewable materials) may be helpful, harmful, or both

  • 2 Historical and cultural perspectives of scientific explanations help to improve understanding of the nature of science and how science knowledge and technology evolve over time

    • A People of different gender and ethnicity have contributed to scientific discoveries and the invention of technological innovations

      • a Research biographical information about various scientists and inventors from different gender and ethnic backgrounds, and describe how their work contributed to science and technology

    • B Scientific theories are developed based on the body of knowledge that exists at any particular time and must be rigorously questioned and tested for validity

  • 3 Science and technology affect, and are affected by, society

    • A People, alone or in groups, are always making discoveries about nature and inventing new ways to solve problems and get work done

      • a Identify a question that was asked, or could be asked, or a problem that needed to be solved when given a brief scenario (fiction or nonfiction of people working alone or in groups solving everyday problems or learning through discovery)

      • b Work with a group to solve a problem, giving due credit to the ideas and contributions of each group member

    • B Social, political, economic, ethical and environmental factors strongly influence, and are influenced by, the direction of progress of science and technology

    • C Scientific ethics require that scientists must not knowingly subject people or the community to health or property risks without their knowledge and consent

    • D Scientific information is presented through a number of credible sources, but is at times influenced in such a way to become non-credible