912.HSN Number and Quantity

912.HSNQ Quantities

912.HSNQ.A Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems.

912.HSNQ.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multistep problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays.

912.HSNQ.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling.

912.HSNQ.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities.

Checkpoint opportunity
912.HSA Algebra

912.HSASSE Seeing Structure in Expressions

912.HSASSE.A Interpret the structure of expressions

912.HSASSE.A.1 Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context.

912.HSASSE.A.1a Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients.

912.HSASSE.A.1b Interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity.

912.HSACED Creating Equations

912.HSACED.A Create equations that describe numbers or relationships

912.HSACED.A.1 Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems.

912.HSACED.A.2 Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales.

912.HSACED.A.3 Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or nonviable options in a modeling context.

912.HSACED.A.4 Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations.

Checkpoint opportunity

912.HSAREI Reasoning with Equations and Inequalities

912.HSAREI.A Understand solving equations as a process of reasoning and explain the reasoning

912.HSAREI.A.1 Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following from the equality of numbers asserted at the previous step, starting from the assumption that the original equation has a solution. Construct a viable argument to justify a solution method.

912.HSAREI.B Solve equations and inequalities in one variable

912.HSAREI.B.3 Solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, including equations with coefficients represented by letters.

Checkpoint opportunity

912.HSAREI.C Solve systems of equations

912.HSAREI.C.5 Prove that, given a system of two equations in two variables, replacing one equation by the sum of that equation and a multiple of the other produces a system with the same solutions.

912.HSAREI.C.6 Solve systems of linear equations exactly and approximately (e.g., with graphs), focusing on pairs of linear equations in two variables.

912.HSAREI.D Represent and solve equations and inequalities graphically

912.HSAREI.D.10 Understand that the graph of an equation in two variables is the set of all its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often forming a curve (which could be a line).

912.HSAREI.D.11 Explain why the xcoordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y = f(x) and y = g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions approximately, e.g., using technology to graph the functions, make tables of values, or find successive approximations. Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear, polynomial, rational, absolute value, exponential, and logarithmic functions.

912.HSAREI.D.12 Graph the solutions to a linear inequality in two variables as a halfplane (excluding the boundary in the case of a strict inequality), and graph the solution set to a system of linear inequalities in two variables as the intersection of the corresponding halfplanes.

Checkpoint opportunity
912.HSF Functions

912.HSFIF Interpreting Functions

912.HSFIF.A Understand the concept of a function and use function notation

912.HSFIF.A.1 Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x).

912.HSFIF.A.2 Use function notation, evaluate functions for inputs in their domains, and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context.

912.HSFIF.A.3 Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers.

912.HSFIF.B Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context

912.HSFIF.B.4 For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship.

912.HSFIF.B.5 Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes.

912.HSFIF.B.6 Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph.

912.HSFIF.C Analyze functions using different representations

912.HSFIF.C.7 Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.

912.HSFIF.C.7a Graph linear and quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima.

912.HSFIF.C.7e Graph exponential and logarithmic functions, showing intercepts and end behavior, and trigonometric functions, showing period, midline, and amplitude.

912.HSFIF.C.9 Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions).

Checkpoint opportunity

912.HSFBF Building Functions

912.HSFBF.A Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities

912.HSFBF.A.1 Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities.

912.HSFBF.A.1a Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context.

912.HSFBF.A.1b Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations.

912.HSFBF.A.2 Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.

912.HSFBF.B Build new functions from existing functions

912.HSFBF.B.3 Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology.

Checkpoint opportunity

912.HSFLE Linear, Quadratic, and Exponential Models

912.HSFLE.A Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems

912.HSFLE.A.1 Distinguish between situations that can be modeled with linear functions and with exponential functions.

912.HSFLE.A.1a Prove that linear functions grow by equal differences over equal intervals, and that exponential functions grow by equal factors over equal intervals.

912.HSFLE.A.1b Recognize situations in which one quantity changes at a constant rate per unit interval relative to another.

912.HSFLE.A.1c Recognize situations in which a quantity grows or decays by a constant percent rate per unit interval relative to another.

912.HSFLE.A.2 Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two inputoutput pairs (include reading these from a table).

912.HSFLE.A.3 Observe using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or (more generally) as a polynomial function.

912.HSFLE.B Interpret expressions for functions in terms of the situation they model

912.HSFLE.B.5 Interpret the parameters in a linear or exponential function in terms of a context.

Checkpoint opportunity
912.HSG Geometry

912.HSGCO Congruence

912.HSGCO.A Experiment with transformations in the plane

912.HSGCO.A.1 Know precise definitions of angle, circle, perpendicular line, parallel line, and line segment, based on the undefined notions of point, line, distance along a line, and distance around a circular arc.

912.HSGCO.A.2 Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch).

912.HSGCO.A.3 Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself.

912.HSGCO.A.4 Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments.

912.HSGCO.A.5 Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another.

Checkpoint opportunity

912.HSGCO.B Understand congruence in terms of rigid motions

912.HSGCO.B.6 Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent.

912.HSGCO.B.7 Use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to show that two triangles are congruent if and only if corresponding pairs of sides and corresponding pairs of angles are congruent.

912.HSGCO.B.8 Explain how the criteria for triangle congruence (ASA, SAS, and SSS) follow from the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions.

Checkpoint opportunity

912.HSGCO.D Make geometric constructions

912.HSGCO.D.12 Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods (compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, dynamic geometric software, etc.).

912.HSGCO.D.13 Construct an equilateral triangle, a square, and a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle.

Checkpoint opportunity

912.HSGGPE Expressing Geometric Properties with Equations

912.HSGGPE.B Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically

912.HSGGPE.B.4 Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically.

912.HSGGPE.B.5 Prove the slope criteria for parallel and perpendicular lines and use them to solve geometric problems (e.g., find the equation of a line parallel or perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point).

912.HSGGPE.B.7 Use coordinates to compute perimeters of polygons and areas of triangles and rectangles, e.g., using the distance formula.

Checkpoint opportunity
912.HSS Statistics and Probability

912.HSSID Interpreting Categorical and Quantitative Data

912.HSSID.A Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable

912.HSSID.A.1 Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots).

912.HSSID.A.2 Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (median, mean) and spread (interquartile range, standard deviation) of two or more different data sets.

912.HSSID.A.3 Interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers).

Checkpoint opportunity

912.HSSID.B Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables

912.HSSID.B.5 Summarize categorical data for two categories in twoway frequency tables. Interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data (including joint, marginal, and conditional relative frequencies). Recognize possible associations and trends in the data.

912.HSSID.B.6 Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related.

912.HSSID.B.6a Fit a function to the data; use functions fitted to data to solve problems in the context of the data.

912.HSSID.B.6b Informally assess the fit of a function by plotting and analyzing residuals.

912.HSSID.B.6c Fit a linear function for a scatter plot that suggests a linear association.

Checkpoint opportunity

912.HSSID.C Interpret linear models

912.HSSID.C.7 Interpret the slope (rate of change) and the intercept (constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data.

912.HSSID.C.8 Compute (using technology) and interpret the correlation coefficient of a linear fit.

912.HSSID.C.9 Distinguish between correlation and causation.

Checkpoint opportunity
Common Core State Standards © Copyright 2010. National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers. All rights reserved.