C&G 1 People create and change structures of power, authority, and governance in order to accomplish common goals.
C&G 1 (7-8)-1 Students demonstrate an understanding of origins, forms, and purposes of government by
a identifying and explaining the origins and basic functions of government
b comparing and contrasting different forms of government (e.g., dictatorship, democracy, theocracy, republic, monarchy)
c explaining what happens when political structures do or do not meet the needs of people (e.g., democracy v. anarchy)
d explaining how geography and economics influence the structure of government
C&G 1 (7-8)-2 Students demonstrate an understanding of sources of authority and use of power, and how they are/can be changed by
a comparing and contrasting the key stages of development of the rule of law, as presented in various enduring/significant documents (e.g., Magna Carta, Preamble of U.S. Constitution, U.N. Rights of the Child, I Have A Dream speech)
b explaining why the rule of law is necessary to the role of government (e.g., debate/ Roberts Rules of Order, classroom procedures)
c defining and identifying the nature of authority and sources of power
C&G 2 The Constitution of the United States establishes a government of limited powers that are shared among different levels and branches.
C&G 2 (7-8)-1 Students demonstrate an understanding of United States government (local, state, national) by
a identifying the functions of the three branches of government; and analyzing and describing the interrelationship among the branches (i.e., checks and balances/ cause and effect, separation of powers)
b explaining how and why power is divided and shared among the levels of government (federalism)
c tracing the process of how an idea transforms into a bill and then becomes a law
C&G 2 (7-8)-2 Students demonstrate an understanding of the democratic values and principles underlying the U.S. government by
a explaining how democratic values are reflected in enduring documents, political speeches (discourse), and group actions
b using a variety of sources to identify and defend a position on a democratic principle (e.g., self-government in Declaration of Independence, womens rights in Seneca Falls Declaration, Habeas Corpus in Laws of 12 Tables, freedom of religion in Washingtons letter to the Touro Synagogue)
c exhibiting and explaining what it means to be a responsible citizen in the state and nation
C&G 3 In a democratic society all people have certain rights and responsibilities.
C&G 3 (7-8)-1 Students demonstrate an understanding of citizens rights and responsibilities by
a defining and applying the concepts: civic (adj.), civics (n), civil, citizen, and rights
b evaluating and defending a position on issues involving individual rights (personal, economic, legal, or political rights reflected in the Bill of Rights)
c analyzing and defending a position on an issue involving civic responsibilities (personal, economic, legal or political rights)
d providing examples that reflect conflicts between individual rights and the common good, within the context of civic responsibility
C&G 3 (7-8)-2 Students demonstrate an understanding of how of individuals and groups exercise (or are denied) their rights and responsibilities by
a identifying an issue, proposing solutions, and developing an action plan to resolve the issue
b identifying and explaining how an action taken by an individual or a group impacts the rights of others
c identifying the impact of an historic court case
C&G 4 People engage in political processes in a variety of ways.
C&G 4 (7-8)-1 Students demonstrate an understanding of political systems and political processes by
a explaining how various factors affect how leaders are selected or elected through an election process (e.g., election process, public agenda, special interest groups, and media)
b describing how and why individuals identify themselves politically (e.g., Federalist, Anti-federalist, suffragette, pacifist, nationalists, socialists)
c evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of various political systems (e.g., dictatorship, oligarchy, monarchy, democracy, theocracy)
d examining how elections are/can be vehicles of change
e recognizing multiple perspectives on historical or current controversial issues
C&G 4 (7-8)-2 Students demonstrate their participation in political processes by
a expressing and defending an informed opinion and presenting their opinion to an audience beyond the classroom (e.g., political cartoon, letter, speech, emailing Congressional membership)
b describing their role and impact in the voting process
c engaging in the political process (e.g., mock elections)
C&G 4 (7-8)-3 Students participate in a civil society by
a demonstrating an understanding and empathy for the opinions of others (e.g., listening to and asking relevant questions, considering alternative perspectives, voicing alternative points of view, recognizing bias)
b demonstrating the ability to compromise (e.g., offering solutions, persisting to resolve issues)
c recognizing the cause(s) and effect(s) of taking a civil action
d utilizing a variety of reliable sources to develop an informed opinion
C&G 5 As members of an interconnected world community, the choices we make impact others locally, nationally, and globally.
C&G 5 (7-8)-1 Students demonstrate an understanding of the many ways Earths people are interconnected by
a tracing and explaining social, technological, geographical, economical, and cultural connections for a given society of people (e.g., trade, transportation, communication)
b identifying, describing, and explaining how people are politically, economically, environmentally, militarily, and (or) diplomatically connected (e.g., World Bank, UN, NATO, European Union)
C&G 5 (7-8)-2 Students demonstrate an understanding of the benefits and challenges of an interconnected world by
a identifying and discussing factors that lead to the breakdown of order among societies and the resulting consequences (e.g., abolition of slavery, terrorism, Fall of Roman Empire, civil war)
b correlating key events to develop an understanding of the historical perspective of the time period in which they occurred (e.g., Jacksonian Democracy and Dorrs Rebellion, water power and steam power, WWII and women at work)
HP 2 (7-8)-3 Students show understanding of change over time by
a establishing a chronological order by working backward from some issue, problem, or event to explain its origins and its development over time; and to construct an historical narrative
HP 3 The study of history helps us understand the present and shape the future.
HP 3 (7-8)-1 Students demonstrate an understanding of how the past frames the present by
a analyzing and reporting on a social movement from its inception (including historical causes), its impacts on us today, and its implications for the future
b evaluating alternative courses of action, (keeping in mind the context of the time), ethical considerations, and the interest of those affected by the decision, and determining the long- and short-term consequences (e.g., Post WWII use of Narragansett Bay - tourism vs. oil refinery)
HP 3 (7-8)-2 Students make personal connections in an historical context (e.g., source-to-source, source-to-self, source-to-world) by
a recognizing and reflecting on how the similarities of human issues across time periods influence their own personal histories (e.g., so what? How does this relate to me?)
b recognizing and reflecting on how the differences of human issues across time periods influence their own personal histories (e.g., so what? How does this relate to me?)
c comparing and contrasting the cultural influences that shape individuals and historical events (e.g., Conversion of Quakers from slave holders to abolitionists, emergence of mill villages, Gordon Trial)
HP 4 Historical events and human/natural phenomena impact and are influenced by ideas and beliefs.
HP 4 (7-8)-1 Students demonstrate an understanding that geographic factors and shared past events affect human interactions and changes in civilizations by
a citing specific evidence to explain how geographic factors impacted a civilizations adaptation, development or decline (e.g., Fertile Crescent, China, Westward Expansion).
c describing how inventions and technological improvements (e.g., irrigation systems, road construction, science) relate to settlement, population growth, and success of a civilization/ country/ nation.
b applying demographic factors (e.g., urban/rural, religion, socioeconomics, race, ethnicity) to understand changes in cultural diversity in an historical and contemporary context.
HP 5 (7-8)-2 Students demonstrate an understanding that culture has affected how people in a society behave in relation to groups and their environment by
a comparing and contrasting how cultural expectations impact peoples behavior and role in different communities/ societies (e.g., student protocols in 1800 vs. today).
b using an historical context, describe how diversity contributes to cultural diffusion, acculturation, or assimilation (e.g., Melting Pot).
c describing how environment (e.g., physical, cultural, etc.) or changes in that environment affects a civilization/country/nation (e.g., settlement, conflicts, transportation, climate change, commerce).