ELA.12.20 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
ELA.12.20.a Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s); establish the significance of the claim(s); distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
ELA.12.20.b Develop and justify claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
ELA.12.20.c Analyze words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
ELA.12.20.e Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
ELA.12.21 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
ELA.12.21.a Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures and/or tables), and multimedia when useful to aid comprehension.
ELA.12.21.b Evaluate the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.
ELA.12.21.f Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
ELA.12.22 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
ELA.12.22.a Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing multiple point(s) of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
ELA.12.22.b Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
ELA.12.22.c Use and evaluate a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).
ELA.12.22.d Use precise words and phrases, effective details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences events, setting, and/or characters.
ELA.12.22.e Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
Production and Distribution of Writing
ELA.12.23 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Text Types and Purposes.)
ELA.12.24 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of all Language standards up to and including grade 12.)
ELA.12.25 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
ELA.12.26 Conduct sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
ELA.12.27 Gather and synthesize relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation (e.g., MLA or APA).
ELA.12.28 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
ELA.12.28.a Apply grade 12 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth-, and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics").
ELA.12.28.b Apply grade 12 Reading standards to nonfiction and other informational texts (e.g., "Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in influential U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles [e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises, purposes and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g., The Federalist Papers or presidential addresses]").
ELA.12.29 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.