ELA.12.1 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the literary text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text and a variety of other sources, including determining where and why the literary text leaves matters uncertain.
ELA.12.2 Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a literary text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective and critical analysis of the literary text.
ELA.12.3 Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, and/or how the characters are introduced and developed).
ELA.12.4 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the informational text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where and why the informational text leaves matters uncertain.
ELA.12.5 Determine two or more central ideas of an informational text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex and critical analysis; provide an objective summary of the informational text.
ELA.12.7 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a variety of literary texts, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.)
ELA.12.8 Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a literary text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, or the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact.
ELA.12.9 Analyze and defend a case in which grasping a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a literary text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).
ELA.12.10 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in an informational text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how and why an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of an informational text (e.g., how Madison defines “faction” in Federalist No. 10).
ELA.12.11 In informational text, analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including how the author uses structure to make points clear, convincing, and engaging.
ELA.12.12 Determine an author’s point of view, purpose, and tone in an informational text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the text.
ELA.12.13 Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), critically evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.)
ELA.12.14 Demonstrate a deep knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth-, and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how multiple literary texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics.
ELA.12.15 Integrate, evaluate, and synthesize multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually and/or quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.
ELA.12.16 Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in influential U.S. informational texts, including the application of constitutional principles (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist Papers or presidential addresses).
ELA.12.17 Analyze seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and nineteenth-century foundational U.S. informational documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., The Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights and Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address) for their themes, purposes, rhetorical features, and current relevancy.