SCI.CC1 Students use science and engineering practices, disciplinary core ideas, and patterns to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.CC1.m Students recognize macroscopic patterns are related to the nature of microscopic and atomic-level structure. They identify patterns in rates of change and other numerical relationships that provide information about natural and human-designed systems. They use patterns to identify cause and effect relationships and use graphs and charts to identify patterns in data.
SCI.CC2 Students use science and engineering practices, disciplinary core ideas, and cause and effect relationships to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
Cause and Effect
SCI.CC2.m Students classify relationships as causal or correlational, and recognize correlation does not necessarily imply causation. They use cause and effect relationships to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems. They also understand that phenomena may have more than one cause, and some cause and effect relationships in systems can only be explained using probability.
SCI.CC3 Students use science and engineering practices, disciplinary core ideas, and an understanding of scale, proportion and quantity to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
SCI.CC3.m Students observe time, space, and energy phenomena at various scales using models to study systems that are too large or too small. They understand phenomena observed at one scale may not be observable at another scale, and the function of natural and designed systems may change with scale. They use proportional relationships (e.g., speed as the ratio of distance traveled to time taken) to gather information about the magnitude of properties and processes. They represent scientific relationships through the use of algebraic expressions and equations.
SCI.CC4 Students use science and engineering practices, disciplinary core ideas, and an understanding of systems and models to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
Systems and System Models
SCI.CC4.m Students understand systems may interact with other systems: they may have sub-systems and be a part of larger complex systems. They use models to represent systems and their interactions—such as inputs, processes, and outputs—and energy, matter, and information flows within systems. They also learn that models are limited in that they only represent certain aspects of the system under study.
SCI.CC5 Students use science and engineering practices, disciplinary core ideas, and an understanding of energy and matter to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
Energy and Matter
SCI.CC5.m Students understand matter is conserved because atoms are conserved in physical and chemical processes. They also understand that within a natural or designed system the transfer of energy drives the motion and cycling of matter. Energy may take different forms (e.g., energy in fields, thermal energy, and energy of motion). The transfer of energy can be tracked as energy flows through a designed or natural system.
SCI.CC6 Students use science and engineering practices, disciplinary core ideas, and an understanding of structure and function to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
Structure and Function
SCI.CC6.m Students model complex and microscopic structures and systems and visualize how their function depends on the shapes, composition, and relationships among their parts. They analyze many complex natural and designed structures and systems to determine how they function. They design structures to serve particular functions by taking into account properties of different materials, and how materials can be shaped and used.
SCI.CC7 Students use science and engineering practices, disciplinary core ideas, and an understanding of stability and change to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
Stability and Change
SCI.CC7.m Students explain stability and change in natural or designed systems by examining changes over time, and considering forces at different scales, including the atomic scale. They understand changes in one part of a system might cause large changes in another part, systems in dynamic equilibrium are stable due to a balance of feedback mechanisms, and stability might be disturbed by either sudden events or gradual changes that accumulate over time.
SCI.SEP1 Students ask questions and define problems, in conjunction with using crosscutting concepts and disciplinary core ideas, to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.SEP1.A Asking Questions
SCI.SEP1.A.m Students ask questions to specify relationships between variables and clarify arguments and models. This includes the following:
SCI.SEP1.A.m.1 Ask questions that arise from careful observation of phenomena, models, or unexpected results, to clarify or seek additional information.
SCI.SEP1.A.m.6 Ask questions that can be investigated within the scope of the classroom, outdoor environment, and museums and other public facilities with available resources and, when appropriate, frame a hypothesis based on observations and scientific principles.
SCI.SEP1.A.m.7 Ask questions that challenge the premise(s) of an argument or the interpretation of a data set.
SCI.SEP1.B Defining Problems
SCI.SEP1.B.m Students define a design problem that can be solved through the development of an object, tool, process, or system, and includes multiple criteria and constraints, including scientific knowledge that may limit possible solutions.
SCI.SEP2 Students develop and use models, in conjunction with using crosscutting concepts and disciplinary core ideas, to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.SEP2.A Developing Models
SCI.SEP2.A.m Students develop, use, and revise models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems. This includes the following:
SCI.SEP2.A.m.1 Evaluate limitations of a model for a proposed object or tool.
SCI.SEP2.A.m.2 Develop or modify a model—based on evidence—to match what happens if a variable or component of a system is changed.
SCI.SEP2.A.m.3 Use and develop a model of simple systems with uncertain and less predictable factors.
SCI.SEP2.A.m.4 Develop and/or revise a model to show the relationships among variables, including those that are not observable but predict observable phenomena.
SCI.SEP2.A.m.5 Develop and use a model to predict and describe phenomena.
SCI.SEP2.A.m.6 Develop a model to describe unobservable mechanisms.
SCI.SEP2.A.m.7 Develop and use a model to generate data to test ideas about phenomena in natural or designed systems, including those representing inputs and outputs, and those at unobservable scales.
SCI.SEP3 Students plan and carry out investigations, in conjunction with using crosscutting concepts and disciplinary core ideas, to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.SEP3.A Planning and Conducting Investigations
SCI.SEP3.A.m Students plan and carry out investigations that use multiple variables and provide evidence to support explanations or solutions. This includes the following:
SCI.SEP3.A.m.1 Individually and collaboratively plan an investigation, identifying: independent and dependent variables and controls, tools needed to do the gathering, how measurements will be recorded, and how many data are needed to support a claim.
SCI.SEP3.A.m.2 Conduct an investigation. Evaluate and revise the experimental design to produce data that serve as the basis for evidence to meet the goals of the investigation.
SCI.SEP3.A.m.3 Evaluate the accuracy of various methods for collecting data.
SCI.SEP3.A.m.4 Collect data under a range of conditions that serve as the basis for evidence to answer scientific questions or test design solutions.
SCI.SEP3.A.m.5 Collect data about the performance of a proposed object, tool, process, or system under a range of conditions.
SCI.SEP4 Students analyze and interpret data, in conjunction with using crosscutting concepts and disciplinary core ideas, to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.SEP4.A Analyze and Interpret Data
SCI.SEP4.A.m Students extend quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis. This includes the following:
SCI.SEP4.A.m.1 Construct, analyze, or interpret graphical displays of data and large data sets to identify linear and nonlinear relationships.
SCI.SEP4.A.m.2 Use graphical displays (e.g., maps, charts, graphs, and tables) of large data sets to identify temporal and spatial relationships.
SCI.SEP4.A.m.3 Distinguish between causal and correlational relationships in data.
SCI.SEP4.A.m.4 Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for explanations of phenomena.
SCI.SEP5.A.m.6 Use digital tools and mathematical concepts and arguments to test and compare proposed solutions to an engineering design problem.
SCI.SEP6 Students construct explanations and design solutions, in conjunction with using crosscutting concepts and disciplinary core ideas, to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.SEP6.A Construct an Explanation
SCI.SEP6.A.m Students construct explanations supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories. This includes the following:
SCI.SEP6.A.m.1 Construct an explanation that includes qualitative or quantitative relationships between variables that predict and describe phenomena.
SCI.SEP6.A.m.2 Construct an explanation using models or representations.
SCI.SEP6.A.m.3 Construct a scientific explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from sources, including the students' own experiments. Solutions should build on the following assumption: theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future.
SCI.SEP6.A.m.4 Apply scientific ideas, principles, and evidence to construct, revise, or use an explanation for real world phenomena, examples, or events.
SCI.SEP6.B.m.2 Undertake a design project, engaging in the design cycle, to construct and implement a solution that meets specific design criteria and constraints.
SCI.SEP6.B.m.3 Optimize performance of a design by prioritizing criteria, making trade-offs, testing, revising, and retesting.
SCI.SEP7 Students engage in argument from evidence, in conjunction with using crosscutting concepts and disciplinary core ideas, to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.SEP7.A Argue from Evidence
SCI.SEP7.A.m Students construct a convincing argument that supports or refutes claims for either explanations or solutions about the natural and designed world. This includes the following:
SCI.SEP7.A.m.1 Compare and critique two arguments on the same topic. Analyze whether they emphasize similar or different evidence and interpretations of facts.
SCI.SEP7.A.m.2 Respectfully provide and receive critiques about one's explanations, procedures, models, and questions by citing relevant evidence and posing and responding to questions that elicit pertinent elaboration and detail.
SCI.SEP7.A.m.3 Construct, use, and present oral and written arguments supported by empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support or refute an explanation or a model for a phenomenon or a solution to a problem.
SCI.SEP7.A.m.4 Make an oral or written argument that supports or refutes the advertised performance of a device, process, or system. Based the argument on empirical evidence concerning whether or not the technology meets relevant criteria and constraints.
SCI.SEP7.A.m.5 Evaluate competing design solutions based on jointly developed and agreed-upon design criteria.
SCI.SEP8 Students will obtain, evaluate and communicate information, in conjunction with using crosscutting concepts and disciplinary core ideas, to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.SEP8.A Obtain, Evaluate, and Communicate Information
SCI.SEP8.A.m Students evaluate the merit and validity of ideas and methods. This includes the following:
SCI.SEP8.A.m.1 Critically read scientific texts adapted for classroom use to determine the central ideas, to obtain scientific and technical information, and to describe patterns in and evidence about the natural and designed world(s).
SCI.SEP8.A.m.2 Clarify claims and findings by integrating text-based qualitative and quantitative scientific information with information contained in media and visual displays.
SCI.SEP8.A.m.3 Gather, read, and synthesize information from multiple appropriate sources and assess the credibility, accuracy, and possible bias of each publication. Describe how they are supported or not supported by evidence and evaluate methods used.
SCI.SEP8.A.m.4 Evaluate data, hypotheses, and conclusions in scientific and technical texts in light of competing information or accounts.
SCI.SEP8.A.m.5 Communicate scientific and technical information (e.g., about a proposed object, tool, process, or system) in writing and through oral presentations.
SCI.LS Life Science
SCI.LS1 Students use science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and an understanding of structures and processes (on a scale from molecules to organisms) to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.LS1.A Structure and Function
SCI.LS1.A.m All living things are made up of cells. In organisms, cells work together to form tissues and organs that are specialized for particular body functions.
SCI.LS1.C Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms
SCI.LS1.C.m Plants use the energy from light to make sugars through photosynthesis. Within individual organisms, food is broken down through a series of chemical reactions that rearrange molecules and release energy.
SCI.LS1.D.m Each sense receptor responds to different inputs, transmitting them as signals that travel along nerve cells to the brain. The signals are then processed in the brain resulting in immediate behavior or memories.
SCI.LS2 Students use science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and an understanding of the interactions, energy, and dynamics within ecosystems to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.LS2.A Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems
SCI.LS2.A.m Organisms and populations are dependent on their environmental interactions both with other living things and with nonliving factors, any of which can limit their growth. Competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial interactions vary across ecosystems but the patterns are shared.
SCI.LS2.B Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
SCI.LS2.B.m The atoms that make up the organisms in an ecosystem are cycled repeatedly between the living and nonliving parts of the ecosystem. Food webs model how matter and energy are transferred among producers, consumers, and decomposers as the three groups interact within an ecosystem.
SCI.LS2.C Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience
SCI.LS2.C.m Ecosystem characteristics vary over time. Disruptions to any part of an ecosystem can lead to shifts in all of its populations. The completeness or integrity of an ecosystem's biodiversity is often used as a measure of its health.
SCI.LS2.D.m Changes in biodiversity can influence humans' resources, such as food, energy, and medicines, as well as ecosystem services that humans rely on -- for example, water purification and recycling.
SCI.LS3 Students use science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and an understanding of heredity to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.LS3.A Inheritance of Traits
SCI.LS3.A.m Genes chiefly regulate a specific protein, which affect an individual's traits.
SCI.LS3.B.m In sexual reproduction, each parent contributes half of the genes acquired by the offspring resulting in variation between parent and offspring. Genetic information can be altered because of mutations, which may result in beneficial, negative, or no change to proteins in or traits of an organism.
SCI.LS4 Students use science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and an understanding of biological evolution to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.LS4.A Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity
SCI.LS4.A.m The fossil record documents the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of many life forms and their environments through Earth's history. The fossil record and comparisons of anatomical similarities between organisms enables the inference of lines of evolutionary descent.
SCI.LS4.B Natural Selection
SCI.LS4.B.m Both natural and artificial selection result from certain traits giving some individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing, leading to predominance of certain traits in a population.
SCI.LS4.C.m Species can change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions through adaptation by natural selection acting over generations. Traits that support successful survival and reproduction in the new environment become more common.
SCI.LS4.D.m Changes in biodiversity can influence humans' resources and ecosystem services they rely on.
SCI.PS Physical Science
SCI.PS1 Students use science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and an understanding of matter and its interactions to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.PS1.A Structures and Properties of Matter
SCI.PS1.A.m The fact that matter is composed of atoms and molecules can be used to explain the properties of substances, diversity of materials, states of matter, phase changes, and conservation of matter.
SCI.PS2.A.m.iii For any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction (Newton's third law).
SCI.PS2.B Types of Interactions
SCI.PS2.B.m Forces that act at a distance involve fields that can be mapped by their relative strength and effect on an object.
SCI.PS3 Students use science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and an understanding of energy to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.PS3.A Definitions of Energy
SCI.PS3.A.m Kinetic energy can be distinguished from the various forms of potential energy.
SCI.PS3.B Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
SCI.PS3.B.m Energy changes to and from each type can be tracked through physical or chemical interactions. The relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter.
SCI.PS3.C Relationships Between Energy and Forces
SCI.PS3.C.m When two objects interact, each one exerts a force on the other, and these forces can transfer energy between the interacting objects.
SCI.PS3.D Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life
SCI.PS3.D.m Sunlight is captured by plants and used in a chemical reaction to produce sugar molecules for storing this energy. This stored energy can be released by respiration or combustion, which can be reversed by burning those molecules to release energy.
SCI.PS4 Students use science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and an understanding of waves and their applications in technologies for information transfer to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.PS4.A Wave Properties
SCI.PS4.A.m A simple wave model has a repeating pattern with a specific wavelength, frequency, and amplitude, and mechanical waves need a medium through which they are transmitted. This model can explain many phenomena including sound and light. Waves can transmit energy.
SCI.ESS2.C The Roles of Water in Earth's Surface Processes
SCI.ESS2.C.m Water cycles among land, ocean, and atmosphere, and is propelled by sunlight and gravity. Density variations of sea water drive interconnected ocean currents. Water movement causes weathering and erosion, changing landscape features.
SCI.ESS3 Students use science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and an understanding of the Earth and human activity to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.ESS3.A Natural Resources
SCI.ESS3.A.m Humans depend on Earth's land, oceans, fresh water, atmosphere, and biosphere for different resources, many of which are limited or not renewable. Resources are distributed unevenly around the planet as a result of past geologic processes.
SCI.ESS3.B Natural Hazards
SCI.ESS3.B.m Patterns can be seen through mapping the history of natural hazards in a region and understanding related geological forces.
SCI.ESS3.C.m Human activities have altered the hydrosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere which in turn has altered the biosphere. Changes to the biosphere can have different impacts for different living things. Activities and technologies can be engineered to reduce people's impacts on Earth.
SCI.ESS3.D.m Evidence suggests human activities affect global warming. Decisions to reduce the impact of global warming depend on understanding climate science, engineering capabilities, and social dynamics.
SCI.ETS Engineering, Technology, and the Application of Science
SCI.ETS1 Students use science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and an understanding of engineering design to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.ETS1.A Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems
SCI.ETS1.A.m The more precisely a design task's criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that are likely to limit possible solutions.
SCI.ETS1.B Developing Possible Solutions
SCI.ETS1.B.m.i A solution needs to be tested and then modified on the basis of the test results in order to improve it.
SCI.ETS1.B.m.ii There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet the criteria and constraints of a problem.
SCI.ETS1.B.m.iii Sometimes parts of different solutions can be combined to create a solution that is better than any of its predecessors.
SCI.ETS1.B.m.iv Models of all kinds are important for testing solutions.
SCI.ETS1.C Optimizing the Design Solution
SCI.ETS1.C.m.i Although one design may not perform the best across all tests, identifying the characteristics of the design that performed the best in each test can provide useful information for the redesign process—that is, some of those characteristics may be incorporated into the new design.
SCI.ETS1.C.m.ii The iterative process of testing the most promising solutions and modifying what is proposed on the basis of the test results leads to greater refinement and ultimately to an optimal solution.
SCI.ETS2 Students use science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and an understanding of the links among Engineering, Technology, Science, and Society to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.ETS2.A Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology
SCI.ETS2.A.m.i Engineering advances have led to important discoveries in virtually every field of science, and scientific discoveries have led to the development of entire industries and engineered systems.
SCI.ETS2.A.m.ii Science and technology drive each other forward.
SCI.ETS2.B Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World
SCI.ETS2.B.m.i All human activity draws on natural resources and has both short and long-term consequences, positive as well as negative, for the health of people and the natural environment.
SCI.ETS2.B.m.ii The uses of technologies are driven by people's needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions.
SCI.ETS2.B.m.iii Technology use varies over time and from region to region.
SCI.ETS3 Students use science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and an understanding of the nature of science and engineering to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.ETS3.A Science and Engineering Are Human Endeavors
SCI.ETS3.A.m.i Individuals and teams from many nations, cultures and backgrounds have contributed to advances in science and engineering.
SCI.ETS3.A.m.ii Scientists and engineers are persistent, use creativity, reasoning, and skepticism, and remain open to new ideas.
SCI.ETS3.A.m.iii Science and engineering are influenced by what is valued in society.
SCI.ETS3.B Science and Engineering Are Unique Ways of Thinking with Different Purposes
SCI.ETS3.B.m.i Science asks questions to understand the natural world and assumes that objects and events in natural systems occur in consistent patterns that are understandable through measurement and observation. Science carefully considers and evaluates anomalies in data and evidence.
SCI.ETS3.B.m.ii Engineering seeks solutions to human problems, including issues that arise due to human interaction with the environment. It uses some of the same practices as science and often applies scientific principles to solutions.
SCI.ETS3.B.m.iii Science and engineering have direct impacts on the quality of life for all people. Therefore, scientists and engineers need to pursue their work in an ethical manner that requires honesty, fairness and dedication to public health, safety and welfare.
SCI.ETS3.C Science and Engineering Use Multiple Approaches to Create New Knowledge and Solve Problems
SCI.ETS3.C.m.i A theory is an explanation of some aspect of the natural world. Scientists develop theories by using multiple approaches. Validity of these theories and explanations is increased through a peer review process that tests and evaluates the evidence supporting scientific claims.
SCI.ETS3.C.m.ii Theories are explanations for observable phenomena based on a body of evidence developed over time. A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested to evaluate a theory. Scientific laws describe cause and effect relationships among observable phenomena.
SCI.ETS3.C.m.iii Engineers develop solutions using multiple approaches and evaluate their solutions against criteria such as cost, safety, time and performance. This evaluation often involves trade-offs between constraints to find the optimal solution.