9-10.L.1b Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.
9-10.L4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9-10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
9-10.L4.a Determine meanings of unfamiliar words by using knowledge of derivational roots and affixes, including cultural derivations (e.g., the root of photography and photosynthesis; kayak), context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word's position or function in a sentence), dialectical English (e.g., Huck Finn), idiomatic expressions (e.g., "it drives me up a wall") as clues to the meaning of a word or phrase.
9-10.L.4c Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.
9-10.L6 Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.