9-12. Extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents.
9-12.N-RN.1 Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents.
9-12. Use properties of rational and irrational numbers.
9-12.N-RN.3 Explain why the sum or product of two rational numbers is rational; that the sum of a rational number and an irrational number is irrational; and that the product of a nonzero rational number and an irrational number is irrational.
9-12. Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems.
9-12.N-Q.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays.
9-12. Represent complex numbers and their operations on the complex plane.
9-12.N-CN.4 Represent complex numbers on the complex plane in rectangular and polar form (including real and imaginary numbers), and explain why the rectangular and polar forms of a given complex number represent the same number.
9-12.N-CN.5 Represent addition, subtraction, multiplication, and conjugation of complex numbers geometrically on the complex plane; use properties of this representation for computation. For example, (1 – √3i)³ = 8 because (1 – √3i) has modulus 2 and argument 120°.
9-12.N-VM.1 Recognize vector quantities as having both magnitude and direction. Represent vector quantities by directed line segments, and use appropriate symbols for vectors and their magnitudes (e.g., v, |v|, ||v||, v).
9-12.N-VM.4.c Understand vector subtraction v – w as v + (–w), where –w is the additive inverse of w, with the same magnitude as w and pointing in the opposite direction. Represent vector subtraction graphically by connecting the tips in the appropriate order, and perform vector subtraction component-wise.
9-12.N-VM.5.b Compute the magnitude of a scalar multiple cv using ||cv|| = |c|·||v||. Compute the direction of cv knowing that when |c|v ≠ 0, the direction of cv is either along v (for c > 0) or against v (for c < 0).
9-12.N-VM.9 Understand that, unlike multiplication of numbers, matrix multiplication for square matrices is not a commutative operation, but still satisfies the associative and distributive properties.
9-12.N-VM.10 Understand that the zero and identity matrices play a role in matrix addition and multiplication similar to the role of 0 and 1 in the real numbers. The determinant of a square matrix is nonzero if and only if the matrix has a multiplicative inverse.
9-12.A - APR Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Expressions
9-12. Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials.
9-12.A-APR.1 Add, subtract, and multiply polynomials. Understand that polynomials form a system similar to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication.
9-12.A-APR.5 Know and apply the Binomial Theorem for the expansion of (x + y)n in powers of x and y for a positive integer n, where x and y are any numbers, with coefficients determined for example by Pascal's Triangle.
9-12.A-APR.6 Rewrite simple rational expressions in different forms; write a(x)/b(x) in the form q(x) + r(x)/b(x), where a(x), b(x), q(x), and r(x) are polynomials with the degree of r(x) less than the degree of b(x), using inspection, long division, or, for the more complicated examples, a computer algebra system.
9-12.A-APR.7 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions. Understand that rational expressions form a system similar to the rational numbers, closed under addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division by a nonzero rational expression.
9-12. Create equations and inequalities that describe numbers or relationships.
9-12.A-CED.1 Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions.
9-12.A-REI.4 Solve quadratic equations in one variable.
9-12.A-REI.4.a Use the method of completing the square to transform any quadratic equation in x into an equation of the form (x – p)² = q that has the same solutions. Derive the quadratic formula from this form.
9-12.A-REI.4.b Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x² = 49), taking square roots, completing the square, the quadratic formula and factoring, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation. Recognize when the quadratic formula gives complex solutions and write them as a ± bi for real numbers a and b.
9-12.A-REI.11 Explain why the x-coordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y = f(x) and y = g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions approximately, e.g., using technology to graph the functions, make tables of values, or find successive approximations. Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear, polynomial, rational, absolute value, exponential, and logarithmic functions.
9-12.A-REI.12 Graph the solutions to a linear inequality in two variables as a half-plane (excluding the boundary in the case of a strict inequality), and graph the solution set to a system of linear inequalities in two variables as the intersection of the corresponding half-planes.
9-12. Understand the concept of a function and use function notation.
9-12.F-IF.1 Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x).
9-12.F-IF.7.d Graph rational functions, identifying zeros and discontinuities (asymptotes/holes) using technology, and algebraic methods when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior.
9-12.F-TF.2 Explain how the unit circle in the coordinate plane enables the extension of trigonometric functions to all real numbers, interpreted as radian measures of angles traversed counterclockwise around the unit circle.
9-12.F-TF.3 Use special triangles to determine geometrically the values of sine, cosine, tangent for π/3, π/4 and π/6, and use the unit circle to express the values of sine, cosines, and tangent for π-x, π+x, and 2π-x in terms of their values for x, where x is any real number.
9-12.F-TF.9 Prove the addition and subtraction formulas for sine, cosine, and tangent and use them to solve problems.
9-12.G - CO Congruence
9-12. Experiment with transformations in the plane.
9-12.G-CO.1 Demonstrates understanding of key geometrical definitions, including angle, circle, perpendicular line, parallel line, line segment, and transformations in Euclidian geometry. Understand undefined notions of point, line, distance along a line, and distance around a circular arc.
9-12.G-CO.2 Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch).
9-12.G-CO.5 Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another.
9-12. Understand congruence in terms of rigid motions.
9-12.G-CO.6 Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent.
9-12.G-CO.7 Use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to show that two triangles are congruent if and only if corresponding pairs of sides and corresponding pairs of angles are congruent.
9-12.G-CO.8 Explain how the criteria for triangle congruence (ASA, SAS, SSS, AAS, and HL) follow from the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions.
9-12. Prove geometric theorems.
9-12.G-CO.9 Using methods of proof including direct, indirect, and counter examples to prove theorems about lines and angles.
9-12.G-CO.12 Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods (compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, dynamic geometric software, etc.). Copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line.
9-12. Find arc lengths and areas of sectors of circles.
9-12.G-C.5 Use and apply the concepts of arc length and areas of sectors of circles. Determine or derive using similarity the fact that the length of the arc intercepted by an angle is proportional to the radius, and define the radian measure of the angle as the constant of proportionality; derive the formula for the area of a sector.
9-12. Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically.
9-12.G-GPE.4 Perform simple coordinate proofs. For example, prove or disprove that a figure defined by four given points in the coordinate plane is a rectangle; prove or disprove that the point (1, √3) lies on the circle centered at the origin and containing the point (0, 2).
9-12.G-GPE.5 Prove the slope criteria for parallel and perpendicular lines and use them to solve geometric problems (e.g., find the equation of a line parallel or perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point).
9-12.G-MG.2 Apply concepts of density based on area and volume in modeling situations (e.g., persons per square mile, BTUs per cubic foot).
9-12.G-MG.3 Apply geometric methods to solve design problems (e.g., designing an object or structure to satisfy physical constraints or minimize cost; working with typographic grid systems based on ratios).
9-12.S - ID Interpreting Categorical and Quantitative Data
9-12. Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable.
9-12.S-ID.1 Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots).
9-12.S-ID.4 Use the mean and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution and to estimate population percentages. Recognize that there are data sets for which such a procedure is not appropriate. Use calculators, spreadsheets, and tables to estimate areas under the normal curve.
9-12. Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables.
9-12.S-ID.5 Summarize categorical data for two categories in two-way frequency tables. Interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data (including joint, marginal, and conditional relative frequencies). Recognize possible associations and trends in the data.
9-12.S-ID.6 Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related.
9-12.S-ID.6.a Fit a function to the data; use functions fitted to data to solve problems in the context of the data. Use given functions or choose a function suggested by the context. Emphasize linear, quadratic, and exponential models.
9-12.S - CP Conditional Probability and the Rules of Probability
9-12. Understand independence and conditional probability and use them to interpret data.
9-12.S-CP.1 Describe events as subsets of a sample space (the set of outcomes) using characteristics (or categories) of the outcomes, or as unions, intersections, or complements of other events (or, and, not).
9-12.S-CP.2 Understand that two events A and B are independent if the probability of A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and use this characterization to determine if they are independent.
9-12.S-CP.3 Understand the conditional probability of A given B as P(A and B)/P(B), and interpret independence of A and B as saying that the conditional probability of A given B is the same as the probability of A, and the conditional probability of B given A is the same as the probability of B.
9-12.S-CP.4 Construct and interpret two-way frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified. Use the two-way table as a sample space to decide if events are independent and to approximate conditional probabilities.
9-12. Calculate expected values and use them to solve problems.
9-12.S-MD.1 Define a random variable for a quantity of interest by assigning a numerical value to each event in a sample space; graph the corresponding probability distribution using the same graphical displays as for data distributions.