8.EE.2 Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x² = p and x³ = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that √2 is irrational.
8.EE.4 Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both standard notation and scientific notation are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities. Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology.
Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations.
8.EE.5 Graph linear equations such as y = mx + b, interpreting m as the slope or rate of change of the graph and b as the y-intercept or starting value. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways.
8.EE.6 Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y = mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b.
Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations.
8.EE.7 Solve linear equations in one variable.
8.EE.7.a Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers).
8.EE.8 Analyze and solve systems of linear equations.
8.EE.8.a Show that the solution to a system of two linear equations in two variables is the intersection of the graphs of those equations because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously.
8.G.2 Demonstrate understanding of congruence by applying a sequence of translations, reflections, and rotations on two-dimensional figures. Given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them.
8.G.4 Demonstrate understanding of similarity, by applying a sequence of translations, reflections, rotations, and dilations on two-dimensional figures. Describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them.
Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data.
8.SP.1 Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association.
8.SP.2 Explain why straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line.
8.SP.3 Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and y-intercept.
8.SP.4 Construct and interpret a two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects and use relative frequencies to describe possible association between the two variables.
8.F.1 Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input (the domain) exactly one output (the range). The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output. For example, use the vertical line test to determine functions and non-functions.
Use functions to model relationships between quantities.
8.F.4 Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values.