W.9-10.1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
W.9-10.1.A Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
W.9-10.1.B Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying relevant evidence and commentary for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level and concerns.
W.9-10.1.C Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, reasons and evidence, and claim(s) and counterclaims; include commentary for support.
W.9-10.1.E Provide an appropriate concluding statement or section that supports the argument presented.
W.9-10.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
W.9-10.2.A Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include appropriate text features (e.g., captions, headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and/or multimedia.
W.9-10.2.B Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, commentary, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.
W.9-10.2.F Provide an appropriate concluding statement or section that supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
W.9-10.3 Write narratives to develop real and/or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
W.9-10.3.A Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or more points of view/perspectives, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
W.9-10.6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology's capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
W.9-10.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question, including a self-generated question, or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
W.9-10.8 Gather relevant information from multiple credible print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively. Assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question. Integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism. Follow a standard format for citation.
W.9-10.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (e.g., a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.