W.11-12.1 Write arguments to support claims when analyzing substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant, sufficient evidence.
W.11-12.1.A Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
W.11-12.1.B Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence and insightful commentary for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
W.11-12.1.E Provide a concluding statement or section that extends from and supports the argument presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the argument).
W.11-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
W.11-12.2.A Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; when useful, include headings, graphics, and multimedia to aid in comprehension.
W.11-12.2.B Develop the topic thoroughly by supplying the most significant and relevant evidence (e.g., facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples) and by providing insightful commentary appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.
W.11-12.2.F Provide a concluding statement or section that extends from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
W.11-12.3 Write narratives to develop real and/or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
W.11-12.3.A Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or more points of view/perspectives, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
W.11-12.3.B Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
W.11-12.3.C Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).
W.11-12.3.D Use precise words, phrases, and details, as well as sensory language, to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
W.11-12.5 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
W.11-12.6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
W.11-12.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
W.11-12.8 Gather relevant information from multiple credible print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively. Assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience. Integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source. Follow a standard format for citation.
W.11-12.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (e.g., a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.