C.1 Students will examine the structure and purposes of governments with specific emphasis on constitutional democracy.
C.1.6-8a Students will understand why governments have the authority to make, enforce, and interpret laws and regulations, such as levying taxes, conducting foreign policy, and providing for national defense.
C.1.6-8b Students will analyze the different functions of federal, state, and local governments in the United States and examine the reasons for the different organizational structures each level of government employs.
C.2 Students will understand the principles and ideals underlying the American political system.
C.2.6-8a Students will understand that the concept of majority rule does not mean that the rights of minorities may be disregarded and will examine and apply the protections accorded those minorities in the American political system.
C.2.6-8b Students will understand the principles and content of major American state papers such as the Declaration of Independence; United States Constitution (including the Bill of Rights); and the Federalist Papers.
E.2 Students will examine the interaction of individuals, families, communities, businesses, and governments in a market economy.
E.2.6-8a Students will analyze the role of money and banking in the economy, and the ways in which government taxes and spending affect the functioning of market economies.
E.3 Students will understand different types of economic systems and how they change.
E.3.6-8a Students will demonstrate the ways in which the means of production, distribution, and exchange in different economic systems have a relationship to cultural values, resources, and technologies.
E.4 Students will examine the patterns and results of international trade.
E.4.6-8a Students will examine how nations with different economic systems specialize and become interdependent through trade and how government policies allow either free or restricted trade.
G.1 Students will develop a personal geographic framework, or "mental map," and understand the uses of maps and other geo-graphics.
G.1.6-8a Students will demonstrate mental maps of the world and its sub-regions which include the relative location and characteristics of major physical features, political divisions, and human settlements.
G.2 Students will develop a knowledge of the ways humans modify and respond to the natural environment.
G.2.6-8a Students will apply a knowledge of the major processes shaping natural environments to understand how different peoples have changed and been affected by, physical environments in the world's sub-regions.
G.3 Students will develop an understanding of the diversity of human culture and the unique nature of places.
G.3.6-8a Students will analyze patterns of cultural activity associated with different world regions in order to explain the reasons for the cultural development of a place.
G.3.6-8b Students will evaluate a location's site and situation in order to identify and explain the distinctive cultural and physical characteristics, patterns of trade, and interactions that make a place unique.
H.2 Students will gather, examine, and analyze historical data.
H.2.6-8a Students will master the basic research skills necessary to conduct an independent investigation of historical phenomena.
H.2.6-8b Students will examine historical documents, artifacts, and other materials, and analyze them in terms of credibility, as well as the purpose, perspective, or point of view for which they were constructed.
H.3 Students will interpret historical data.
H.3.6-8a Students will compare different historians' descriptions of the same societies in order to examine how the choice of questions and use of sources may affect their conclusions.