6 Students conduct cost-benefit analyses of historical and current events.
1 Students use map and globe skills to determine the absolute locations (latitude and longitude) of places, and they interpret information available through a map or globe's legend, scale, and symbolic representations.
2 Students define common map and globe terms, including continent, country, mountain, valley, ocean, sea, lake, river; cardinal directions, latitude, longitude, north pole, south pole, tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, equator, 360-degree divisions, time zones; elevation, depth, approximate distances in miles, isthmus, strait, peninsula, island, archipelago, 23-and-a-half-degree global tilt, fall line; and compass rose, scale, and legend.
3 Students judge the significance of the relative location of a place (e.g., proximity to a harbor, on trade routes), and they analyze how relative advantages or disadvantages can change over time.
4 Students identify the human and physical characteristics of the places they are studying, and they explain how those features form the unique character of those places.
4.1 Students describe the different peoples, with different languages and ways of life, that eventually spread out over the North and South American continents and the Caribbean Basin, from Asia to North America (the Bering Strait) (e.g., Inuits, Anasazi, Mound Builders, and the Caribs).
4.2 Students describe the legacy and cultures of the major indigenous settlements, including the cliff dwellers and pueblo people of the desert Southwest, the triple alliance empire of the Yucatan Peninsula, the nomadic nations of the Great Plains, and the woodland peoples east of the Mississippi.
1 Identify how geography and climate influenced the way various nations lived and adjusted to the natural environment, including locations of villages, the distinct structures that they built, and how they obtained food, clothing, tools, and utensils.
2 Describe systems of government, particularly those with tribal constitutions, and their relationship to federal and state governments.
3 Describe religious beliefs, customs, and various folklore traditions.
4 Explain their varied economies and trade networks.
Age of Exploration (15th – 16th Centuries)
4.3 Students trace the routes of early explorers and describe the early explorations of the Americas.
1 Compare maps of the modern world with historical maps of the world before the Age of Exploration.
2 Locate and explain the routes of the major land explorers of the United States, the distances traveled by explorers, and the Atlantic trade routes that linked Africa, the West Indies, the British colonies, and Europe.
3 Locate the North, Central, Caribbean, and South American land claimed by European countries.
4 Describe the aims, obstacles, and accomplishments of the explorers, sponsors, and leaders of key European expeditions and the reasons Europeans chose to explore and colonize the world (e.g., the Spanish Reconquista, the Protestant Reformation, and the Counter-Reformation).
5 Identify the entrepreneurial characteristics of early explorers (e.g., Christopher Columbus, Francisco Vásquez de Coronado) and the technological developments that made sea exploration by latitude and longitude possible, including the exchange of technology and ideas with Asia and Africa.
6 Analyze the impact of exploration and settlement on the indigenous peoples and the environment (e.g., military campaigns, spread of disease, and European agricultural practices).
4.4 Students identify the six different countries (France, Spain, Portugal, England, Russia, and the Netherlands) that influenced different regions of the present United States at the time the New World was being explored, and describe how their influence can be traced to place names, architectural features, and language.
4.5 Students describe the productive resources and market relationships that existed in early America.
1 Describe the economic activities within and among Native American cultures prior to contact with Europeans.
2 Identify how the colonial and early American economy exhibited these characteristics.
3 Identify major leaders and groups responsible for the founding of the original colonies in North America and the reasons for their founding (e.g., Lord Baltimore, Maryland; John Smith, Virginia; Roger Williams, Rhode Island; and John Winthrop, Massachusetts).
5 Contrast these democratic ideals and practices with the presence of enslavement in all colonies and the attempts by Africans in the Virginia, Pennsylvania, and New England colonies to petition for freedom.
6 Outline the religious aspects of the earliest colonies (e.g., Puritanism in Massachusetts, Anglicanism in Virginia, Catholicism in Maryland, and Quakerism in Pennsylvania).
7 Explain various reasons why people came to the colonies, including how both whites from Europe and blacks from Africa came to America as indentured servants who were released at the end of their indentures.
4.8 Students explain the causes of the American Revolution.
1 Explain the effects of transportation and communication on American independence (e.g., long travel time to England fostered local economic independence, and regional identities developed in the colonies through regular communication).
2 Explain how political, religious, and economic ideas and interests brought about the Revolution (e.g., resistance to imperial policy, the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, taxes on tea, and Coercive Acts).
4 Identify the people and events associated with the drafting and signing of the Declaration of Independence and the document's significance, including the key political concepts it embodies, the origins of those concepts, and its role in severing ties with Great Britain.
5 Identify the views, lives, and influences of key leaders during this period (e.g., King George III, Patrick Henry, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and John Adams).
4 Identify the contributions of France, Spain, the Netherlands, and Russia, as well as certain individuals to the outcome of the Revolution (e.g., the Marquis Marie Joseph de Lafayette, Tadeusz Kósciuszko, and Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben).
5 Describe the significance of land policies developed under the Continental Congress (e.g., sale of western lands and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787) and those policies' impact on American Indians' land.
6 Explain how the ideals set forth in the Declaration of Independence changed the way people viewed slavery.
7 Describe the different roles women played during the Revolution (e.g., Abigail Adams, Martha Washington, Phillis Wheatley, and Mercy Otis Warren).
4 Understand the meaning of the American creed that calls on citizens to safeguard the liberty of individual Americans within a unified nation, to respect the rule of law, and to preserve the Constitution.
5 List and interpret the songs that express American ideals (e.g., "America the Beautiful" and "The Star-Spangled Banner").
4.11 Students compare and contrast 15th-through-18th-century America and the United States of the 21st century with respect to population, settlement, patterns, resource use, transportation systems, human livelihoods, and economic activity.