5 Explain how latitude affects climates of continents.
6 Explain the relationship between lines of longitude and time zones.
7 Locate and define various large regions in the Eastern and Western hemispheres, and divide those regions into smaller regions based on race, language, nationality, or religion.
8 Ask geographic questions and obtain answers from a variety of sources, such as books, atlases, and other written materials; statistical source material; fieldwork and interviews; remote sensing; word processing; and GIS. Reach conclusions and give oral, written, graphic, and cartographic expression to conclusions.
9 Give examples of how maps can be used to convey a point of view, so that critical analysis of map sources is essential.
10 Explain that people develop their own mental maps or personal perceptions of places in the world, that their experiences and culture influence their perceptions, and that these perceptions tend to influence their decision-making.
Places and Regions
6.2 Students acquire a framework for thinking geographically, including the location and unique characteristics of places.
1 Name and locate the world's continents, major bodies of water, major mountain ranges, major river systems, major countries, and major cities.
2 Give examples and analyze ways in which people's changing views of places and regions reflect cultural change.
3 Explain that the concept of "region" has been devised by people as a way of categorizing, interpreting, and ordering complex information about Earth.
4 Give examples of critical issues that may be region-specific and others that cross regional boundaries within the United States.
5 Identify a region where natural disasters occur frequently, and give examples of how international efforts bring aid to this region.
6.3 Students identify and analyze the human activities that shape Earth's surface, including population numbers, distribution and growth rates, and cultural factors.
1 Explain key migration patterns and the interrelationships among migration, settlement, population distribution patterns, landforms, and climates (e.g., East Indian-Polynesian).
2 Explain the concept of population dynamics and, through maps, establish current world patterns of population distribution, density, and growth.
3 Identify the demographic structure of a population and reasons for variations between places, including developing and developed nations.
4 Relate population growth rates to health statistics, food supply, or other measures of well-being.
5 Map the distribution patterns of the world's major religions and identify architectural features associated with each.
6 Describe the effect of religion on world economic development patterns, cultural conflict, and social integration.
7 Map the distribution pattern of the world's major languages, and explain the concept of a lingua franca (a widely used second language; a language of trade and communication).
8 Identify the cultural contributions of various ethnic groups in selected world regions and countries, including the United States.
9 Point out specific situations where human or cultural factors are involved in global conflict and identify different viewpoints in the struggle. Create scenarios under which these cultural factors would no longer trigger conflict.
10 Identify international organizations of global power and influence (e.g., the North Atlantic Treaty Organization/NATO, the United Nations, the European Union, the African Union, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations/ASEAN, and the Non-Aligned Movement), and form committees to report on the influence and limits to influence of each one.
Economic Systems and Urbanization
6.4 Students describe rural and urban land use, ways of making a living, cultural patterns, and economic and political systems.
1 Describe the worldwide trend toward urbanization, and graph this trend.
2 Understand the relationships between changing transportation technologies and increasing urbanization.
3 Explain that the internal structure of cities varies in different regions of the world, and give examples.
4 Analyze the changing structure and functions of cities over time.
5 Map the worldwide occurrence of the three major economic systems: traditional, command, and market. Describe the characteristics of each, and identify influences leading to potential change.
6 Explain the meaning of the word infrastructure, and analyze its relationship to a country's level of development.
7 Explain how change in communication and transportation technology is contributing to both cultural convergence and divergence. Explain how places and regions serve as cultural symbols (e.g., Jerusalem as a sacred place for Jews, Christians, and Muslims).
8 Summarize how cultural norms in a region influence different economic activities of men and women, including literacy, occupations, clothing, and property rights.
9 Identify patterns of economic activity in terms of primary (growing or extracting), secondary (manufacturing), and tertiary (distributing and services) activities.
6.5 Students acquire a framework for thinking about Earth's physical systems: Earth-sun relationships, climate and related ecosystems, and land forms.
1 Recall and apply knowledge concerning Earth-sun relationships, including "reasons for seasons" and time zones.
2 Categorize elements of the natural environment as belonging to one of the four components of Earth's physical systems: atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, or hydrosphere.
3 Explain the difference between weather and climate.
4 Identify and account for the distribution pattern of the world's climates.
5 Describe distinct patterns of natural vegetation and biodiversity and their relations to world climate patterns.
6 Integrate understandings concerning the physical processes that shape Earth's surface and result in existing landforms: plate tectonics, mountain building, erosion, and deposition.
7 Give specific examples, in terms of places where they occur, of the physical processes that shape Earth's surface.
8 Describe the ways in which Earth's physical processes are dynamic and interactive.
9 Map with precision the occurrence of earthquakes on Earth over a given period (at least several months), and draw conclusions concerning regions of tectonic instability.
10 Explain the safety measures people can take in the event of an earthquake, tornado, or hurricane and map the occurrence of each of these natural hazards in the United States over a given period of time.
11 Use a variety of means to research the sources of different types of pollution in the local community and design measures that can be taken to reduce each type of pollution.
Environment and Society
6.6 Students analyze ways in which humans affect and are affected by their physical environment.
1 Identify human-caused threats to the world's environment: atmospheric and surface pollution, deforestation, desertification, salinization, overfishing, urban sprawl, and species extinction.
2 Identify ways in which occurrences in the natural environment can be a hazard to humans: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tornadoes, flooding, hurricanes and cyclones, and lightning-triggered fires.
3 Analyze the possible consequences of a natural disaster on the local community, and devise plans to cope with, minimize, or mitigate their effect.
4 Evaluate how and why the ability of Earth to feed its people has changed over time.
5 Analyze world patterns of resource distribution and utilization, and explain the consequences of use of renewable and nonrenewable resources.
6 Assess how people's perceptions of their relationship to natural phenomena have changed over time, and analyze how these changing perceptions are reflected in human activity and land use.
7 Explain and evaluate the relationships between agricultural land uses and the environment (grazing, grain cropping, and tree farming).
8 Develop policies that are designed to guide the use and management of Earth's resources and that reflect multiple points of view.
9 Explain why oil — one of the major resources of North Africa, West Africa, and the Middle East — is important to the economic and political stability of the hemisphere and the world.