8 Ask geographic questions and obtain answers from a variety of sources, such as books, atlases, and other written materials; statistical source material; fieldwork and interviews; remote sensing; word processing; and GIS. Reach conclusions and give oral, written, graphic, and cartographic expression to conclusions.
9 Give examples of how maps can be used to convey a point of view, so that critical analysis of map sources is essential.
10 Explain that people develop their own mental maps or personal perceptions of places in the world, that their experiences and culture influence their perceptions, and that these perceptions tend to influence their decision-making.
Places and Regions
6.2 Students acquire a framework for thinking geographically, including the location and unique characteristics of places.
1 Name and locate the world's continents, major bodies of water, major mountain ranges, major river systems, major countries, and major cities.
9 Point out specific situations where human or cultural factors are involved in global conflict and identify different viewpoints in the struggle. Create scenarios under which these cultural factors would no longer trigger conflict.
10 Identify international organizations of global power and influence (e.g., the North Atlantic Treaty Organization/NATO, the United Nations, the European Union, the African Union, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations/ASEAN, and the Non-Aligned Movement), and form committees to report on the influence and limits to influence of each one.
6 Explain the meaning of the word infrastructure, and analyze its relationship to a country's level of development.
7 Explain how change in communication and transportation technology is contributing to both cultural convergence and divergence. Explain how places and regions serve as cultural symbols (e.g., Jerusalem as a sacred place for Jews, Christians, and Muslims).
8 Summarize how cultural norms in a region influence different economic activities of men and women, including literacy, occupations, clothing, and property rights.
9 Students frame questions that can be answered by historical study and research.
10 Students distinguish fact from opinion in historical narratives and stories. They know facts are true statements because they are supported by reliable evidence and can cease to be facts if new evidence renders previous evidence wrong or unreliable.
14 Students detect the different historical points of view on historical events and determine the context in which the historical statements were made (the questions asked, sources used, and author's perspectives).
15 Students know the distinction between sound generalizations and misleading oversimplifications and stereotypes, such as the attribution of individual perspectives on historical events to entire demographic groups.
1 Students explain Earth's grid system and are able to locate places using degrees of latitude and longitude.
4 Students categorize characteristics of places in terms of whether they are physical (natural) or cultural (human). Know and apply the subcategories of physical and cultural characteristics when describing any given place.
5 Students explain the historical migration of people, expansion and disintegration of empires, and the growth of economic systems. Identify spatial patterns in the movement of people, goods, and ideas throughout history.
7 Students assess how people's changing perceptions of geographic features have led to changes in human societies. They study current events to describe how people's experiences of diverse cultures and places influences their perceptions and viewpoints.
8 Students identify and explain the process of conflict and cooperation (political, economic, religious, etc.) among people in the contemporary world at local, national, regional, and international scales.