6 Students conduct cost-benefit analyses of historical and current events.
1 Students use map and globe skills to determine the absolute locations (latitude and longitude) of places, and they interpret information available through a map or globe's legend, scale, and symbolic representations.
2 Students define common map and globe terms, including continent, country, mountain, valley, ocean, sea, lake, river; cardinal directions, latitude, longitude, north pole, south pole, tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, equator, 360-degree divisions, time zones; elevation, depth, approximate distances in miles, isthmus, strait, peninsula, island, archipelago, 23-and-a-half-degree global tilt, fall line; and compass rose, scale, and legend.
3 Students judge the significance of the relative location of a place (e.g., proximity to a harbor, on trade routes), and they analyze how relative advantages or disadvantages can change over time.
4 Students identify the human and physical characteristics of the places they are studying, and they explain how those features form the unique character of those places.
5.1 Students trace the colonization, immigration, and settlement patterns of the American people from 1789 to the mid-1800s.
1 Describe the waves of immigrants from Europe between 1789 and 1850 and their modes of transportation into the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys and through the Cumberland Gap (e.g., overland wagons, canals, flatboats, and steamboats).
2 Describe the enslaved immigrants from Africa from the 1790s through the 1820s and the routes they traveled from disembarkment (e.g., from New Orleans up the Mississippi and westward along the Gulf Coast, from Mobile, Savannah, Charleston, Washington, DC, Baltimore, and Philadelphia, westward, northward, and southward).
3 Describe the process of the "internal slave trade" that saw Africans born in the United States sold into the southernmost states (Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina) from more Northern states (Virginia, North Carolina, and Maryland).
4 Name the states and territories that existed in 1850 and their locations and major geographical features (e.g., mountain ranges, principal rivers, and dominant plant regions).
5 Demonstrate knowledge of the explorations of the trans-Mississippi West following the Louisiana Purchase (e.g., Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, Sacagawea, Zebulon Pike, and John Fremont).
6 Describe the continued migration of Mexican settlers into Mexican territories of the West and Southwest.
7 Describe the experiences of settlers on the overland trails to the West (e.g., location of the routes; purpose of the journeys; the influence of the terrain, rivers, vegetation, and climate; life in the territories at the end of these trails).
8 Relate how and when California, Texas, Oregon, and other Western lands became part of the United States, including the significance of the Texas War for Independence and the Mexican-American War.
5 Identify the transportation innovations that led to westward settlements.
6 Explain how and why young women and children join the paid labor force.
5.3 Students describe the rapid growth of slavery in the South after 1800.
1 Describe how Southern colonists slowly altered their attitudes toward Africans, increasingly viewing them as permanent servants or slaves; the harsh conditions of the Middle Passage; the responses of slave families to their condition; and the ongoing struggle between proponents and opponents of slavery.
4 Explain the significance of and consequences ensuing from the abolition of slavery in the Northern states after the Revolution, and of the 1808 law that banned the importation of slaves into the United States.
5 Describe the impact of the cotton gin on the economics and culture of slavery and Southern agriculture.
6 Analyze the emergence of African American self-help organizations, emigration to all-black towns in the West (e.g., the Exodusters), and the call for reparations by formerly enslaved leaders (e.g., Isaiah Dickerson, Callie House, and the ex-slave pension and mutual relief association).
Industrial America (1870–1940)
5.7 Students explain the various causes and consequences of the Second Industrial Revolution.
1 Explain the rapid growth of cities and trans-Atlantic transportation systems.
2 Identify sources of new immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe, China, Korea, and Japan, with particular attention to the role that Chinese and Irish laborers played in the development of the Transcontinental Railroad.
3 Locate regional concentrations of Latinos and explain their presence in certain occupational categories (e.g., Mexicans in railroad construction in the Southwest, or Puerto Ricans and Cubans in journalism and related trades in New York City).
4 Analyze the formation of unions.
5 Describe the United States as the land of opportunity versus a growing sense of protectionism and nativism.
6 Outline child labor and working conditions.
7 Identify major goals of the Progressive Era (e.g., attacking racial discrimination, child labor, big business, and alcohol use).
8 List important technological and scientific advances.
5.8 Students describe the nation's growing role in world affairs.
1 Analyze the Open Door Policy and U.S. expansion into Asia.
2 Examine Japan and describe the significance of the Gentleman's Agreement.
3 Explain the Cuban-Spanish-American War and interventions in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean.
4 Explain the participation of African Americans from the 9th and 10th Calvaries (the Buffalo Soldiers and the Smoked Yankees) in the Indian and Cuban-Spanish-American War.
5 Identify the reasons for American entry into World War I.
3 Locate and identify major geographic regions in the United States (e.g., Northeast, Southeast, and Southwest) and how regional differences in climate, types of farming, populations, and sources of labor shape their economies and societies.
4 Locate and identify the U.S. territorial possessions and their capitals (e.g., Puerto Rico, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands).
5 Locate and identify the climate, major physical features, and major natural resources in each region.
5.13 Students explain important domestic trends of the 1950s and 1960s.
1 Describe the growth of suburbs and home ownership.
2 Explain the development of mass media, including television (TV).
3 Trace the economic growth and declining poverty.
4 Describe the Mexican Bracero program and the unprecedented migration of Puerto Ricans to take part in the invigorated industrial economy.
5.14 Students describe the key events and accomplishments of the Civil Rights movement in the United States.
1 Describe the proliferation of the Civil Rights movement of African Americans from the churches of the rural South to the urban North.
2 Explain the role of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
3 Identify key leaders in the struggle to extend equal rights to all Americans through the decades (e.g., Mary McLeod Bethune, Ella Jo Baker, César Chávez, Frederick Douglass, Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzales, Charles Houston, Martin Luther King Jr., Thurgood Marshall, Carlos Montes, Baker Motley, Rosa Parks, Malcolm X, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Reies López Tijerina).
4 List and describe the steps toward desegregation (e.g., A. Philip Randolph's proposed 1941 March on Washington, Jackie Robinson and baseball, Truman and the Armed Forces, Adam Clayton Powell and Congress, and the integration of public schools).
5 Explain the women's rights movement, including differing perspectives on the roles of women.
6 Explain the growth of the African American middle class.
5.15 Students describe some of the major economic and social trends of the late 20th century.
1 Describe the environmental movement and the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency.
2 Explain the antiwar and counterculture movements.
3 Trace the computer and technological revolutions.
4 List key scientific and medical discoveries.
5 Explain the changing family systems and roles of women.
5.16 Students identify major waves of immigration and demographic changes in U.S. history and describe the diverse nature of American people and their contributions to American culture.
1 Identify indigenous peoples in different areas of the country (e.g., Navajo, Seminoles, Sioux, Hawaiians, and Inuit).
2 Describe the lives of African Americans, including an explanation of their early concentration in the South because of slavery, the Great Migration to Northern cities in the 20th century, and ongoing African immigrant groups (e.g., Ethiopians, Nigerians, and Ghanaians), and where they have tended to settle in large numbers.
3 Describe the major European immigrant groups who have come to America, locating their countries of origin, and where they have tended to settle in large numbers (e.g., English, Germans, Italians, Scots, Irish, Jews, Poles, and Scandinavians).
4 Describe the major Asian immigrant groups who have come to America in the 19th and 20th centuries, locating their countries of origin and where they have tended to settle in large numbers in certain regions (e.g., Koreans, Chinese, and Vietnamese).
5 Distinguish between waves of immigrant Latino groups and identify the push and pull factors that stimulated their transnational movement (e.g., Cubans in the 1960s and 1980s; Central Americans in the 1980s; Caribbean peoples, especially Haitians and Dominicans, in the 1990s).