e Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using estimation strategies and graphing technology.
Use properties of rational and irrational numbers.
MGSE9-12.N.RN.2 Rewrite expressions involving radicals (i.e., simplify and/or use the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication, with radicals within expressions limited to square roots).
MGSE9-12.N.RN.3 Explain why the sum or product of rational numbers is rational; why the sum of a rational number and an irrational number is irrational; and why the product of a nonzero rational number and an irrational number is irrational.
MGSE9-12.N.Q.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. Given a situation, context, or problem, students will determine, identify, and use appropriate quantities for representing the situation.
MGSE9-12.A.CED.3 Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret data points as possible (i.e. a solution) or not possible (i.e. a non-solution) under the established constraints.
Understand solving equations as a process of reasoning and explain the reasoning
MGSE9-12.A.REI.1 Using algebraic properties and the properties of real numbers, justify the steps of a simple, one-solution equation. Students should justify their own steps, or if given two or more steps of an equation, explain the progression from one step to the next using properties.
MGSE9-12.A.REI.4 Solve quadratic equations in one variable.
MGSE9-12.A.REI.4a Use the method of completing the square to transform any quadratic equation in x into an equation of the form (x – p)² = q that has the same solutions. Derive the quadratic formula from ax² + bx + c = 0.
MGSE9-12.A.REI.4b Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x² = 49), taking square roots, factoring, completing the square, and the quadratic formula, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation (limit to real number solutions).
Understand the concept of a function and use function notation
MGSE9-12.F.IF.1 Understand that a function from one set (the input, called the domain) to another set (the output, called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range, i.e. each input value maps to exactly one output value. If f is a function, x is the input (an element of the domain), and f(x) is the output (an element of the range). Graphically, the graph is y = f(x).
MGSE9-12.F.IF.3 Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. (Generally, the scope of high school math defines this subset as the set of natural numbers 1,2,3,4...) By graphing or calculating terms, students should be able to show how the sequence sn = 2(n -1) + 7; and the function f(x) = 2x + 5 (when x is a natural number) all define the same sequence.
Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context
MGSE9-12.F.IF.4 Using tables, graphs, and verbal descriptions, interpret the key characteristics of a function which models the relationship between two quantities. Sketch a graph showing key features including: intercepts; interval where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior;
MGSE9-12.F.BF.2 Write arithmetic and geometric sequences recursively and explicitly, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms. Connect arithmetic sequences to linear functions and geometric sequences to exponential functions.
MGSE9-12.F.BF.3 Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them.