e Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using estimation strategies and graphing technology.
Use properties of rational and irrational numbers.
MGSE9-12.N.RN.2 Rewrite expressions involving radicals (i.e., simplify and/or use the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication, with radicals within expressions limited to square roots).
MGSE9-12.N.RN.3 Explain why the sum or product of rational numbers is rational; why the sum of a rational number and an irrational number is irrational; and why the product of a nonzero rational number and an irrational number is irrational.
MGSE9-12.N.Q.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. Given a situation, context, or problem, students will determine, identify, and use appropriate quantities for representing the situation.
MGSE9-12.A.CED.3 Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret data points as possible (i.e. a solution) or not possible (i.e. a non-solution) under the established constraints.
Understand solving equations as a process of reasoning and explain the reasoning
MGSE9-12.A.REI.1 Using algebraic properties and the properties of real numbers, justify the steps of a simple, one-solution equation. Students should justify their own steps, or if given two or more steps of an equation, explain the progression from one step to the next using properties.
MGSE9-12.A.REI.4 Solve quadratic equations in one variable.
MGSE9-12.A.REI.4a Use the method of completing the square to transform any quadratic equation in x into an equation of the form (x – p)² = q that has the same solutions. Derive the quadratic formula from ax² + bx + c = 0.
MGSE9-12.A.REI.4b Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x² = 49), taking square roots, factoring, completing the square, and the quadratic formula, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation (limit to real number solutions).
Understand the concept of a function and use function notation
MGSE9-12.F.IF.1 Understand that a function from one set (the input, called the domain) to another set (the output, called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range, i.e. each input value maps to exactly one output value. If f is a function, x is the input (an element of the domain), and f(x) is the output (an element of the range). Graphically, the graph is y = f(x).
MGSE9-12.F.IF.3 Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. (Generally, the scope of high school math defines this subset as the set of natural numbers 1,2,3,4...) By graphing or calculating terms, students should be able to show how the sequence sn = 2(n -1) + 7; and the function f(x) = 2x + 5 (when x is a natural number) all define the same sequence.
Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context
MGSE9-12.F.IF.4 Using tables, graphs, and verbal descriptions, interpret the key characteristics of a function which models the relationship between two quantities. Sketch a graph showing key features including: intercepts; interval where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior;
MGSE9-12.F.BF.2 Write arithmetic and geometric sequences recursively and explicitly, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms. Connect arithmetic sequences to linear functions and geometric sequences to exponential functions.
MGSE9-12.F.BF.3 Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them.
Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems
MGSE9-12.F.LE.1 Distinguish between situations that can be modeled with linear functions and with exponential functions.
MGSE9-12.F.LE.1a Show that linear functions grow by equal differences over equal intervals and that exponential functions grow by equal factors over equal intervals. (This can be shown by algebraic proof, with a table showing differences, or by calculating average rates of change over equal intervals).
MGSE9-12.F.LE.2 Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two input-output pairs (include reading these from a table).
MGSE9-12.F.LE.3 Observe using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or (more generally) as a polynomial function.
Interpret expressions for functions in terms of the situation they model
MGSE9-12.F.LE.5 Interpret the parameters in a linear (f(x) = mx + b) and exponential (f(x) = a*dx) function in terms of context. (In the functions above, "m" and "b" are the parameters of the linear function, and "a" and "d" are the parameters of the exponential function.) In context, students should describe what these parameters mean in terms of change and starting value.
MGSE9-12.S.ID.2 Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (median, mean) and spread (interquartile range, mean absolute deviation) of two or more different data sets.
Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables
MGSE9-12.S.ID.5 Summarize categorical data for two categories in two-way frequency tables. Interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data (including joint, marginal, and conditional relative frequencies). Recognize possible associations and trends in the data.
MGSE9-12.S.ID.6 Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related.
MGSE9-12.S.ID.6a Decide which type of function is most appropriate by observing graphed data, charted data, or by analysis of context to generate a viable (rough) function of best fit. Use this function to solve problems in context. Emphasize linear, quadratic and exponential models.
MGSE9-12.S.ID.8 Compute (using technology) and interpret the correlation coefficient "r" of a linear fit. (For instance, by looking at a scatterplot, students should be able to tell if the correlation coefficient is positive or negative and give a reasonable estimate of the "r" value.) After calculating the line of best fit using technology, students should be able to describe how strong the goodness of fit of the regression is, using "r".
MGSE9-12.S.ID.9 Distinguish between correlation and causation.
Experiment with transformations in the plane
MGSE9-12.G.CO.1 Know precise definitions of angle, circle, perpendicular line, parallel line, and line segment, based on the undefined notions of point, line, distance along a line, and distance around a circular arc.
MGSE9-12.G.CO.2 Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch).
MGSE9-12.G.CO.5 Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another.
MGSE9-12.G.CO.6 Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent.
MGSE9-12.G.CO.7 Use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to show that two triangles are congruent if and only if corresponding pairs of sides and corresponding pairs of angles are congruent.
MGSE9-12.G.CO.8 Explain how the criteria for triangle congruence (ASA, SAS, and SSS) follow from the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions. (Extend to include HL and AAS.)
Prove geometric theorems
MGSE9-12.G.CO.9 Prove theorems about lines and angles.
MGSE9-12.G.CO.12 Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods (compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, dynamic geometric software, etc.). Copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line.
MGSE9-12.G.SRT.2 Given two figures, use the definition of similarity in terms of similarity transformations to decide if they are similar; explain, using similarity transformations, the meaning of similarity for triangles as the equality of all corresponding pairs of angles and the proportionality of all corresponding pairs of sides.
MGSE9-12.G.C.1 Understand that all circles are similar.
MGSE9-12.G.C.2 Identify and describe relationships among inscribed angles, radii, chords, tangents, and secants. Include the relationship between central, inscribed, and circumscribed angles; inscribed angles on a diameter are right angles; the radius of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent where the radius intersects the circle.
MGSE9-12.G.C.5 Derive using similarity the fact that the length of the arc intercepted by an angle is proportional to the radius, and define the radian measure of the angle as the constant of proportionality; derive the formula for the area of a sector.
Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically
MGSE9-12.G.GPE.4 Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically.
MGSE9-12.G.GPE.5 Prove the slope criteria for parallel and perpendicular lines and use them to solve geometric problems (e.g., find the equation of a line parallel or perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point).
MGSE9-12.G.MG.1 Use geometric shapes, their measures, and their properties to describe objects (e.g., modeling a tree trunk or a human torso as a cylinder).
MGSE9-12.G.MG.2 Apply concepts of density based on area and volume in modeling situations (e.g., persons per square mile, BTUs per cubic foot).
MGSE9-12.G.MG.3 Apply geometric methods to solve design problems (e.g., designing an object or structure to satisfy physical constraints or minimize cost; working with typographic grid systems based on ratios).
S.CP Conditional Probability and the Rules of Probability
Understand independence and conditional probability and use them to interpret data
MGSE9-12.S.CP.1 Describe categories of events as subsets of a sample space using unions, intersections, or complements of other events (or, and, not).
MGSE9-12.S.CP.2 Understand that if two events A and B are independent, the probability of A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and that if the probability of two events A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, the two events are independent.
MGSE9-12.S.CP.3 Understand the conditional probability of A given B as P (A and B)/P(B). Interpret independence of A and B in terms of conditional probability; that is, the conditional probability of A given B is the same as the probability of A, and the conditional probability of B given A is the same as the probability of B.
MGSE9-12.S.CP.4 Construct and interpret two-way frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified. Use the two-way table as a sample space to decide if events are independent and to approximate conditional probabilities.