1 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
In fourth grade, students know that doing mathematics involves solving problems and discussing how they solved them. Students explain to themselves the meaning of a problem and look for ways to solve it. Fourth graders may use concrete objects or pictures to help them conceptualize and solve problems. They may check their thinking by asking themselves, "Does this make sense?" They listen to the strategies of others and will try different approaches. They often will use another method to check their answers.
2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
Fourth graders should recognize that a number represents a specific quantity. They connect the quantity to written symbols and create a logical representation of the problem at hand, considering both the appropriate units involved and the meaning of quantities. They extend this understanding from whole numbers to their work with fractions and decimals. Students write simple expressions, record calculations with numbers, and represent or round numbers using place value concepts.
3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
In fourth grade, students may construct arguments using concrete referents, such as objects, pictures, and drawings. They explain their thinking and make connections between models and equations. They refine their mathematical communication skills as they participate in mathematical discussions involving questions like "How did you get that?" and "Why is that true?" They explain their thinking to others and respond to others' thinking.
4 Model with mathematics.
Students experiment with representing problem situations in multiple ways including numbers, words (mathematical language), drawing pictures, using objects, making a chart, list, or graph, creating equations, etc. Students need opportunities to connect the different representations and explain the connections. They should be able to use all of these representations as needed. Fourth graders should evaluate their results in the context of the situation and reflect on whether the results make sense.
5 Use appropriate tools strategically.
Fourth graders consider the available tools (including estimation) when solving a mathematical problem and decide when certain tools might be helpful. For instance, they may use graph paper or a number line to represent and compare decimals and protractors to measure angles. They use other measurement tools to understand the relative size of units within a system and express measurements given in larger units in terms of smaller units.
6 Attend to precision.
As fourth graders develop their mathematical communication skills, they try to use clear and precise language in their discussions with others and in their own reasoning. They are careful about specifying units of measure and state the meaning of the symbols they choose. For instance, they use appropriate labels when creating a line plot.
7 Look for and make use of structure.
In fourth grade, students look closely to discover a pattern or structure. For instance, students use properties of operations to explain calculations (partial products model). They relate representations of counting problems such as tree diagrams and arrays to the multiplication principal of counting. They generate number or shape patterns that follow a given rule.
8 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Students in fourth grade should notice repetitive actions in computation to make generalizations Students use models to explain calculations and understand how algorithms work. They also use models to examine patterns and generate their own algorithms. For example, students use visual fraction models to write equivalent fractions.
4.OA Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.
MGSE4.OA.1 Understand that a multiplicative comparison is a situation in which one quantity is multiplied by a specified number to get another quantity.
a Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison e.g., interpret 35 = 5 × 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5.
b Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations.
MGSE4.OA.2 Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison. Use drawings and equations with a symbol or letter for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison.
MGSE4.OA.3 Solve multistep word problems with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a symbol or letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.
MGSE4.OA.4 Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1–100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is prime or composite.
MGSE4.OA.5 Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. Explain informally why the pattern will continue to develop in this way.
MGSE4.NBT.2 Read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multi-digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.
MGSE4.NBT.5 Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.
MGSE4.NBT.6 Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.
Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.
MGSE4.NF.1 Explain why two or more fractions are equivalent a/b = (n x a)/(n x b) ex: 1/4 = (3 x 1)/(3 x 4) by using visual fraction models. Focus attention on how the number and size of the parts differ even though the fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions.
MGSE4.NF.2 Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models, by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions.
b Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.
c Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.
d Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.
MGSE4.NF.7 Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two decimals refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual model.
Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit.
MGSE4.MD.1 Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec.
a Understand the relationship between gallons, cups, quarts, and pints.
b Express larger units in terms of smaller units within the same measurement system.
c Record measurement equivalents in a two column table.
MGSE4.MD.2 Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.
MGSE4.MD.4 Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2,1/4,1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions with common denominators by using information presented in line plots.
Geometric Measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles.
MGSE4.MD.5 Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement:
a An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a "one-degree angle," and can be used to measure angles.
MGSE4.MD.7 Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into non-overlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol or letter for the unknown angle measure.
MGSE4.MD.8 Recognize area as additive. Find areas of rectilinear figures by decomposing them into non-overlapping rectangles and adding the areas of the non-overlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems.
Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.
MGSE4.G.1 Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures.
MGSE4.G.2 Classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles.
MGSE4.G.3 Recognize a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify line-symmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry.